Monday, 30 November 2015

What is science?

What is Science ?


The word “science” probably brings to mind many different pictures: a fat textbook, white lab coats and microscopes, an astronomer peering through a telescope, a naturalist in the rainforest, Einstein’s equations scribbled on a chalkboard, the launch of the space shuttle, bubbling beakers. All of those images reflect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture because science has so many facets

Science is both a body of knowledge and a process.
In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that’s only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understandings of the natural world.

Science is exciting.
Science is a way of discovering what’s in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past, and how they are likely to work in the future. Scientists are motivated by the thrill of seeing or figuring out something that no one has before.

Science is useful.
The knowledge generated by science is powerful and reliable. It can be used to develop new technologies, treat diseases, and deal with many other sorts of problems.

Science is ongoing.
Science is continually refining and expanding our knowledge of the universe, and as it does, it leads to new questions for future investigation. Science will never be “finished”.

Science is a global human endeavor.
People all over the world participate in the process of science. And you can too!


Science aims to explain and understand
Science as a collective institution aims to produce more and more accurate natural explanations of how the natural world works, what its components are, and how the world got to be the way it is now. Classically, science’s main goal has been building knowledge and understanding, regardless of its potential applications—for example, investigating the chemical reactions that an organic compound undergoes in order to learn about its structure. However, increasingly, scientific research is undertaken with the explicit goal of solving a problem or developing a technology, and along the path to that goal, new knowledge and explanations are constructed. For example, a chemist might try to produce an antimalarial drug synthetically and in the process, discover new methods of forming bonds that can be applied to making other chemicals. Either way (so-called “pure” or “applied” research), science aims to increase our understanding of how the natural world works. The knowledge that is built by science is always open to question and revision. No scientific idea is ever once-and-for-all “proved.” Why not? Well, science is constantly seeking new evidence, which could reveal problems with our current understandings.

Ideas that we fully accept today may be rejected or modified in light of new evidence discovered tomorrow. For example, up until 1938, paleontologists accepted the idea that coelacanths (an ancient fish) went extinct at the time that they last appear in the fossil record—about 80 million years ago. But that year, a live coelacanth was discovered off the coast of South Africa, causing scientists to revise their ideas and begin to investigate how this animal survives in the deep sea. Despite the fact that they are subject to change, scientific ideas are reliable. The ideas that have gained scientific acceptance have done so because they are supported by many lines of evidence. These scientific explanations continually generate expectations that hold true, allowing us to figure out how entities in the natural world are likely to behave (e.g., how likely it is that a child will inherit a particular genetic disease) and how we can harness that understanding to solve problems (e.g., how electricity, wire, glass, and various compounds can be fashioned into a working light bulb). For example, scientific understandings of motion and gases allow us to build airplanes that reliably get us from one airport to the next. Though the knowledge used to design airplanes is technically provisional, time and time again, that knowledge has allowed us to produce airplanes that fly. We have good reason to trust scientific ideas: They work.

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the Universe. In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. -Wikipedia.

Historical Research : Archaeology

Historical Research : Archaeology

Archaeology : Archaeology is a discipline of knowledge which studies all physical evidence of extinct human culture and evaluates its history - S.J.D. Layet

Archaeology : Meaning and Explanation

Archaeology is discipline which studies material signs of the past. It excavates and studies buried cultures of bygone times. The word  'Archaeology' is derived from the Greek word Archaios and logos. 'Archaios' means ancient whereas 'logos' means knowledge. Therefore, Archaeology tell us about the origin and evolution of human beings. It examines different stages of human development as well as human life in culture and civilisation. It studies all physical remnants of ancient cultures.

My friend asked me what is relation between history and archaeology?
-The root of history is in Archaeology studies. Archaeology discovers necessary sources for the understanding of ancient culture. The main aim of Archaeology is to reconstruct history of human journey, starting from evolution to stage of civilisation.

Aims of Archaeology


A) History of human evolution
Many years ago human being was created. We study the history of human cultural evolution with help of Archaeology and other auxiliary sciences. These science throw light on many aspects of our technological evolution.

B) Study of human culture
Studying old civilisations is the main aim of Archaeology. It explains history of human civilisation from Stone Age to the present times on the basis of physical remains.

C) Study of antique arts
We come to know about Antique Arts with help of archaeological sources. We come to know about ancient wisdom of human civilisations. e.g. Harappa's city planning tells us about ancient architectural skill. at the same time provides guidelines to modern architects.

D) Conservation and preservation of archaeology antiquities
In 1856 Lord Dalhousie started the Department of Archaeology in India. The main aim of this department was to conserve and preserve ancient antiquities and monuments. Since that time, antiquities' care and conversation has begun.

E) Tracing technological development
Archaeology throws light on the development in technology in human life the past. e.g. use tools of different materials, controlling fire, development in metallurgy, Agriculture and other developments. Only Archaeology can tell us about different stages of technology.



Methods of Archaeology

1. Survey - Aerial and Geomagnetic Survey.
2. Excavation.
3. Analysis.
4. Virtual Archaeology.
5. Extension.



Soon full version will be uploaded for download please comment.

Temples of Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त

Temples of Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त



Chitragupta, considered by the devout as the account-keeper of all the good and bad deeds in one's life and decides the destination after death i.e., hell or heaven, does not usually have temples built for him. But here he is the presiding deity.
Chitragupta came into being after Brahma, the creator, having established the four varnas — Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra — ordained Dharamraj (also called Yamraj, the god of death) to keep record of the deeds — good and evil — of all life-forms born and yet to be born on earth, in the heavens above and in the lands below. Dharamraj, however, complained, "O Lord, how can I alone keep record of the deeds of the beings born into 84 lakh yonis (life-forms) in the three worlds?"
Brahma went into meditation for 11, 000 years and when he opened his eyes he saw a man holding pen and ink-pot in his hands and a sword girdled to his waist. Brahma spoke: "Thou hast been created from my body (Kaya), therefore shall thy progeny be known as the Kayasthas. Thou hast been conceived in my mind (Chitra) and in secrecy (gupta), thy name shall also be Chitragupta." Brahma then enjoined him to dispense justice and punish those who violated the dharma.

Mantra - ॐ श्री चित्रगुप्ताय नमः (Oṃ shri chitraguptaay Namaḥ)

|| चित्रगुप्त चालिसा ||

कार्तिक शुक्ल दिनांक दो, श्रद्धा सौरभ मान,
अक्षर जीवी जन करें, चित्रगुप्त का ध्यान  ||
ज्ञानी वीर गहीरमन, मंद मंद मुस्कान,
निर्णय लिखते कर्म का, चित्रगुप्त का ध्यान ||

ब्रह्मा पुत्र नमामि नमामि, चित्रगुप्त अक्षर कुल स्वामी ||
अक्षरदायक ज्ञान विमलकर, न्यायतुलापति नीर-छीर धर ||
हे विश्रामहीन जनदेवता, जन्म-मृत्यु के अधिनेवता ||
हे अंकुश सभ्यता सृष्टि के, धर्म नीति संगरक्षक गति के ||
चले आपसे यह जग सुंदर, है नैयायिक दृष्टि समंदर ||

हे संदेश मित्र दर्शन के, हे आदर्श परिश्रम वन के ||
हे यममित्र पुराण प्रतिष्ठित, हे विधिदाता जन-जन पूजित ||
हे महानकर्मा मन मौनम, चिंतनशील अशांति प्रशमनम ||
हे प्रातः प्राची नव दर्शन, अरुणपूर्व रक्तिम आवर्तन ||
हे कायस्थ प्रथम हो परिघन, विष्णु हृद्‌य के रोमकुसुमघन ||

हे एकांग जनन श्रुति हंता, हे सर्वांग प्रभूत नियंता ||
ब्रह्म समाधि योगमाया से, तुम जन्मे पूरी काया से ||
लंबी भुजा साँवले रंग के, सुंदर और विचित्र अंग के ||
चक्राकृत गोला मुखमंडल, नेत्र कमलवत ग्रीवा शंखल ||
अति तेजस्वी स्थिर द्रष्टा, पृथ्वी पर सेवाफल स्रष्टा ||

तुम ही ब्रह्मा-विष्णु-रुद्र हो, ब्राह्मण-क्षत्रिय-वैश्य-शुद्र हो ||
चित्रित चारु सुवर्ण सिंहासन, बैठे किये सृष्टि पे शासन ||
कलम तथा करवाल हाथ मेखड़िया स्याही लिए साथ में ||
कृत्याकृत्य विचारक जन हो, अर्पित भूषण और वसन हो ||
तीर्थ अनेक तोय अभिमंत्रित, दुर्वा-चंदन अर्घ्य सुगंधित ||

गम-गम कुमकुम रोली चंदन, हे कायस्थ सुगंधित अर्चन ||
पुष्प-प्रदीप धूप गुग्गुल से, जौ-तिल समिधा उत्तम कुल के ||
सेवा करूँ अनेको बरसो, तुम्हें चढाँऊ पीली सरसों ||
बुक्का हल्दी नागवल्लि दल, दूध-दहि-घृत मधु पुंगिफल ||
ऋतुफल केसर और मिठाई, कलमदान नूतन रोशनाई ||

जलपूरित नव कलश सजा कर, भेरि शंख मृदंग बजाकर ||
जो कोई प्रभु तुमको पूजे, उसकी जय-जय घर-घर गुंजे ||
तुमने श्रम संदेश दिया है, सेवा का सम्मान किया है ||
श्रम से हो सकते हम देवता, ये बतलाये हो श्रमदेवता ||
तुमको पूजे सब मिल जाये, यह जग स्वर्ग सदृश्य खिल जाए ||

निंदा और घमंड निझाये, उत्तम वृत्ति-फसल लहराये ||
हे यथार्थ आदर्श प्रयोगी, ज्ञान-कर्म के अद्‌भुत योगी ||
मुझको नाथ शरण मे लीजे, और पथिक सत्पथ का कीजे ||
चित्रगुप्त कर्मठता दिजे, मुझको वचन बध्दता दीजे ||
कुंठित मन अज्ञान सतावे, स्वाद और सुखभोग रुलावे ||

आलस में उत्थान रुका है, साहस का अभियान रुका है ||
मैं बैठा किस्मत पे रोऊ, जो पाया उसको भी खोऊ ||
शब्द-शब्द का अर्थ मांगते, भू पर स्वर्ग तदर्थ माँगते ||
आशीर्वाद आपका चाहू, मैं चरणो की सेवा चाहू ||
सौ-सौ अर्चन सौ-सौ पूजन, सौ-सौ वंदन और निवेदन ||

बार बार वर मांगता, हाथ जोड़ श्रीमान ||
प्राणी प्राणी देवता, धरती स्वर्ग समान ||

|| पुज्य पिता श्री प्रसिद्ध नारायण वर्मा द्वारा दिये गये संस्कृति के सम्मान में आनंद संधिदूत्, गहमर, गाजीपुर (हाल मोकाम मिर्ज़ापुर) द्वारा दिनांक चित्रगुप्त पूजा सन्‌ 1991 को जनार्पित ||

There are numerous temples for Chitraguptaji Maharaj. Notable temples of Chitraguptaji Maharaj.

Andhra Pradesh
1.       Chitragupta Mahadeva devalayam - temple in Hyderabad, stated to be 250 years old, (near Kandikal Gate, opp to Chatrinaka Police Station), Falaknama, Hyderabad.

JHARKHAND
1.       Chitragupt Mandir on the Bank of KOEL Riveron Chitragpta Ghat , Daltonganj, Medininagar (Palamau) , JHARKHAND, a group of Kayastha Pariwar Built a Temple where a Beautiful Chitrugupta Maharaj Statue..

Bihar
1.       Chitragupta ji Maharaj temple on the bank of Gandak river on Chitragupta ghat in Hajipur, Bihar.
2.       Chitragupta Ji Maharaj with his 12 sons are established in Sewak Sanjaynath Tantrik Kali Mandir,  Raxaul, Bihar.
3.       Chitragupta Ji Maharaj with his 2 wifes and 12 sons are established in Sewak Sanjaynath Kali Nyas Dusmaha Vidhy Mandir,Byepass Road, 70 feet Patna, Bihar.
4.       Chitragupta ji Maharaj temple at Chhata chauk in muzaffarpur, Bihar.

Madhya Pradesh
1.       Ram Janardan temple and another Shri Chitragptaji temple at the bank of Shipra River at Ram Ghat, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh
2.       Foota Tal - Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.

Rajasthan
1.       Bhatnagar Sabha - Udaipur www.bhatnagarsabhaudaipur.com a group of Kayastha devotees has built a grand temple of Chitragupta in Udaipur, Rajasthan.

2.       A more than 300-year-old famous temple of Shri Chitra Gupta is located in the centre of city in Alwar, where an annual fair is held for darshan and worship of Chitragupta, between Dhantriyodashi to Yam Dwitia in the Hindu month of Kartic (October–November). It is situated between Munshibazar and Delhi Gate, in Alwar, Rajasthan.

3.       Kayastha sabha Pratap nagar (Society), [Jaipur] a group of Kayastha devotees has built a temple of Shri Chitragupt Mander, sec-8, Pratap Nagar Jaipur in, Rajasthan.

Tamil Nadu
1.       The notable temple in South India dedicated to Chitragupta is located at Kanchipuram.

Uttar Pradesh
1.       Dharma-hari-chitra gupta temple (even worshiped by lord Ram, according to legendary belief), Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh.
2.       Chitragupta Mandir: This temple is situated at about 5 km from railway station, in the heart of the city in front of Jubilee Inter College, Baxipur, Gorakhpur. The foundation of the temple was laid by Justice Vindhyavasini Prasad in the year 1965. The temple has a beautiful architecture and opens for public from 8am-5pm on all days.

Lucknow
Chitragupt mandir Rae Bareli is a famous temple.


Will soon upload more about Chitragupta.

Chiranjivis or Nine Immortals

CHIRANJIVIS OR NINE IMMORTALS


CHIRANJIVIS ARE PERMANENT LIVING BEINGS IN HINDUISM WHO ARE TO REMAIN ALIVE THROUGH THIS KALI YUGA UNTIL THE NEST SATYA YUGA. THE TERM IS COMBINATION OF CHIRAM OR PERMANENT AND JIVI OR LIVED. IT IS SAME AS'AMARATVA, WHICH REFERS TO TRUE IMMORTALITY.

AT THE END OF THE LAST KALPA, A DEMON ATTEMPTED TO BECOME IMMORTAL BY SWALLOWING THE VEDAS AS THEY ESCAPED FROM THE MOUTH OF BRAHMA. THE SCRIPTURE WAS RETRIEVED BY THE FIRST AVATAR OF VISHNU, MATSYA. INCARNATIONS OF VISHNU ALSO LATER FOUGHT AND KILLED TWO OTHER ASURAS.

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Sunday, 29 November 2015

Brahma Muhurtha

Brahma Muhurtha

WHAT US BRAHMA MUHURTHA?

THE TIME BETWEEN 3 AM AND 6 AM IS CONSIDERED TO BE BRAHMA MUHURTA. ITS IS SUPPOSED TO BE THE MOST AUSPICIOUS TIME OF THE DAY. IT IS SAID THAT DURING THIS PERIOD OF TIME ALL CELESTIAL BEINGS TAKE REST AND THERE IS VERY LITTLE THOUGHT ACTIVITY IN THE ETHEREAL WORLD. AS SUCH, THIS PERIOD IS CONSIDERED THE BEST TIME FOR MEDITATION AND FOR SPIRITUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS SAID, ANY PROBLEM CAN BE SOLVED IF YOU TRY TO SOLVE IT DURING THIS PERIOD OF TIME.


IMPORTANCE

AYURVEDA STATES THAT THERE ARE THREE DOSHAS FOUND IN THE HUMAN PHYSICAL BODY, CALLED VATA (AIR), PITTA (FIRE) AND KAPHA (EARTH AND WATER). THE INCREASE OR DECREASE OF THESE THREE DOSHAS IS RELATED TO THE CYCLES OF TIME. FROM SUNRISE UNTIL 10:00AM IS THE TIME OF KAPHA; FROM 10:00AM UNTIL 2:00PM IS PITTA TIME; AND FROM 2:00PM UNTIL SUNSET (6:00PM) IS THE TIME OF VATA.

THE EVENING FOLLOWS A SIMILAR PATTERN, FROM 6:00PM UNTIL 10:00PM IS THE TIME OF KAPHA, FROM 10:00PM UNTIL 2:00AM IS THE TIME OF PITTA, AND FROM 2:00 AM UNTIL 6:00 AM (SUNRISE) IS VATA TIME. BRAHMA MUHURTHA OCCURS DURING THE VATA PHASE OF THE MORNING, BETWEEN 2:00AM AND 6:00AM, AND YOGA MASTERS STATE THAT THE BEST TIME TO MEDITATE IS ONE AND A HALF HOURS BEFORE DAWN, BECAUSE THE MIND IS INHERENTLY STILL AT THAT TIME, ENABLING ONE TO ACHIEVE A DEEPER MEDITATIVE STATE.


NOTE

IN THE WINTER IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT YOU SHOULD TAKE A COLD BATH. A MENTAL BATH WILL SUFFICE. IMAGINE AND FEEL, "I AM TAKING A BATH NOW IN THE SACRED TRIVENI AT PRAYAG OR MANIKARNIKA AT BENARES." REMEMBER THE PURE ATMAN. REPEAT THE FORMULA, "I AM THE EVER PURE SOUL." THIS IS THE MOST POWERFUL WISDOM-BATH IN JNANA-GANGA. THIS IS HIGHLY PURIFYING. IT BURNS ALL SINS. ANSWER THE CALLS OF NATURE QUICKLY. CLEAN YOUR TEETH. DO NOT WASTE MUCH TIME IN MORNING ABLUTIONS. THE BRAHMA MUHURTA WILL PASS AWAY QUICKLY. YOU MUST UTILISE THIS PRECIOUS TIME IN JAPA AND MEDITATION. SIT IN SIDDHA, PADMA OR SUKHA ASANA. TRY TO CLIMB THE SUPREME HEIGHT OF BRAHMN, THE PEAK OF DIVINE GLORY AND SPLENDOUR.

IF YOU ARE NOT IN THE HABIT OF GETTING UP EARLY, USE AN ALARM TIMEPIECE. ONCE THE HABIT IS ESTABLISHED, THERE WILL BE NO DIFFICULTY. THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND WILL BECOME YOUR WILLING AND OBEDIENT SERVANT TO WAKE YOU UP AT THE PARTICULAR TIME.

CULTIVATE THE HABIT OF ANSWERING THE CALLS OF NATURE AS SOON AS YOU GET UP FROM BED. IF YOU SUFFER FROM CONSTIPATION DO MEDITATION AS SOON AS YOU GET UP. YOU CAN ANSWER THE CALLS OF NATURE AFTER FINISHING YOUR MORNING MEDITATION WITH THE HELP OF A CUP OF HOT MILK.

AS SOON AS YOU GET UP FROM BED, DO JAPA AND MEDITATION. THIS IS IMPORTANT. AFTER FINISHING YOUR JAPA AND MEDITATION YOU CAN TAKE TO THE PRACTICE OF ASANA, PRANAYAMA AND STUDY OF GITA AND OTHER RELIGIOUS BOOKS.

EVERY SANDHYA TIME, OR DUSK, IS ALSO FAVOURABLE FOR MEDITATION. DURING BRAHMA MUHURTA AND DUSK, THE SUSHUMNA NADI FLOWS READILY. YOU WILL ENTER INTO DEEP MEDITATION AND SAMADHI WITHOUT MUCH EFFORT WHEN SUSHUMNA NADI FLOWS. THAT IS THE REASON WHY RISHIS, YOGIS AND SCRIPTURES SPEAK VERY HIGHLY OF THESE TWO PERIODS OF TIME. WHEN THE BREATH FLOWS THROUGH BOTH NOSTRILS, KNOW THAT THE SUSHUMNA IS WORKING. WHENEVER THE SUSHUMNA FUNCTIONS, SIT FOR MEDITATION AND ENJOY THE INNER PEACE OF ATMAN OR SOUL.

REPEAT SOME DIVINE STOTRAS, HYMNS OR GURU STOTRAS OR CHANT OM 12 TIMES, OR DO KIRTAN FOR FIVE MINUTES BEFORE YOU START YOUR JAPA AND MEDITATION. THIS WILL QUICKLY ELEVATE YOU MIND AND DRIVE OFF LAZINESS AND SLEEPINESS. DO SIRSHASANA OR SARVANGASANA OR ANY OTHER ASANA FOR FIVE MINUTES. DO PRANAYAMA FOR FIVE MINUTES. THIS ALSO WILL MAKE YOU QUITE FIT FOR THE PRACTICE OF MEDITATION AND REMOVE LAZINESS AND SLEEPY CONDITION.
 

HOPE YOU ALL LIKED IT PLEASE PUT REVIEW.

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

Graphene

GRAPHENE

WHAT IS GRAPHENE ?

- Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. It is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case[clarification needed] of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. crystallized form of carbon, much like diamonds, that has its carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. This one atom thick layer of mineral graphite is light, strong and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Its unique properties allow its use in many applications. This is a short list of some of the areas which have shown some interesting applications of graphene.


USES OF GRAPHENE -

Ultracapacitors – Graphene’s unique properties make it a great material for storing electrical energy. An article in the MIT Technology Review indicates that Korea has developed the technology to a point where they feel a graphene supercapacitors can be used in electric vehicles. Imagine being able to recharge an electric vehicle in 16 seconds as opposed to hours.

Medicine – Graphene can enhance Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) through its thermal properties thereby increasing the amount of DNA product produced by each PCR cycle, reducing the cycles required by as much as 65%.

Desalination – Current research indicates that graphene filters can outperform current technology significantly. Imagine what that would mean to providing potable water to countries with water challenges.

Solar cells – Graphene has excellent electrical conductivity and optical transparency making it a great candidate for use in solar cells. Coupled with its capacitive capabilities it’s not difficult to imagine graphene used not only to collect energy but store it.

Transparent conducting electrodes – The flexibility of the material, coupled with the optical transparency and conductive properties make graphene a good solution for applications such as touch screens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells and organic light emitting diodes.

Computer chips – Because graphene can be used for integrated circuits or transistors, it’s entirely feasible for graphene to be used for this application. Considering that the material is a single atom thick it’s entirely possible to achieve denser, more powerful chips that require less electricity.

Optical storage – What’s exciting about this is that graphene can provide the ability to develop holographic storage with orders of magnitude more capacity than current blu-ray technology. Australian researchers report that they’re reaching a density of 3.2 terabits per cubic inch; a significant improvement over current hard drive capacities which are just approaching 1 terabit per cubic inch.

Additive to coolants – Because of its excellent thermal properties, graphene used as an additive to coolants can improve the conductivity of the coolant by 86%.

Thermal management materials – A three dimensional multilayer graphene structure can be used as a thermal conductor to remove heat from circuitry.

Ethanol distillation – Graphene oxide membranes allow water vapor to pass through it while impermeable to all other liquids and gases including helium. This makes it excellent for use in distilling liquids without adding heat or vacuum to the process making the production of biofuels more economical.

There are other related uses for graphene that I’ve not addressed in this article. Many of the electrical applications include amplification of different types of signals and determining how the material reacts to magnetism. More and more research is being conducted to determine other applications for this material especially when combined with other materials.

SOON TO UPLOAD DETAILED VERSION. STAY TUNED. 

Tridasha "three times ten" त्रिदश tridaśa

Tridasa


There are 33 devas which manifest the glory of God, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas, Indra and Prajapati, 33 on the whole.

The eight Vasus (I) Heated cosmic bodies, (2) Planets (3) Atmospheres (4) Supertcrrastrial space (5) Suns (6) Rays of ethcral space (7) Satellites (8) Stars.

These are called Vasus (abodes) for the whole group of existences resides in them, for they are abodes of all that lives, moves or exists.

The eleven Rudras are the ten pranas (nervauric forces or vital airs) enlivening the human frame and the eleventh is Aatma (the human spirit).

These are called the Rudras (from root rud to weep) because when they desert the body, it becomes dead and the relations of the dead begin to weep.

The 12 Adityas are the twelve solar months, marking the course of time. They are called Adityas as by their cyclic motion, they produce changes in all objects and hence lapse of the term of existence for each object.

Indra is the all-pervading electricity or force. Prajapati is Yajna (or an active voluntary association of objects on the part of man for the purpose of art or association with other men for purpose of teaching or learning) God is the One Deva Who is Adorable. According to the Vedas, God is the Supreme Lord of all the devas. The Vedas tell us expressly.

-RIG VEDA.

Twelve Ādityas (personified deities) – Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuṇa, Dakṣa, Aṃśa, Tvāṣṭṛ, Pūṣan, Vivasvat, Savitṛ, Indra (Śakra), Vishnu.

Eleven Rudras, consisting of: Five abstractions – Ānanda "bliss", Vijñāna "knowledge", Manas "thought", Prāṇa "breath" or "life", Vāc "speech", Five names of Śiva – Īśāna "ruler", Tatpuruṣa "that person", Aghora "not terrible", Vāmadeva "pleasant god", Sadyojāta "born at once"
Ātmā "self"

Eight Vasus (deities of material elements) – Pṛthivī "Earth", Agni "Fire", Antarikṣa "Atmosphere" or "Space", Jal "Water", Vāyu "Wind", Dyauṣ "Sky", Sūrya "Sun", Nakṣatra "Stars", Soma "Moon"
Other sources include the two Aśvins (or Nāsatyas), twin solar deities.

Indra also called Śakra, lord of the gods, is the First of the 33 followed by Agni
Prajāpati "Master of creatures", a creator god.

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