Sunday, 24 July 2016

Forgotten Religion - Manichaeism

The ancient world was home to a huge variety of religions and belief systems. Most have faded away, their temples and statues vanished or half-sunk in the desert sand, their gods barely remembered. This is one of the many religions founded before most of the main religions of today (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam) and most of them have completely died out — although some are being revived by new practitioners.


Founded in the third century A.D. by a Persian man named Mani, Manichaeism was originally viewed as a heretical Christian sect, but has since been recognized as its own religion. Its founder claimed he was bringing together all the world’s religions, including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Christianity. In fact, quite a few apocryphal Christian writings would have been lost had it not been for the Manichaeans. Focused on the difference between good and evil, Manichaeism was known for having knowledge as its road to salvation. The highest adherents to the religion were known as the “Elect” or the “Perfect” and resembled Buddhist monks, although they were required to be nomadic


Its followers were great missionaries, spreading Mani’s influence across the globe, until it lost its popularity in the Middle Ages. Much of their downfall was related to the many persecutions they suffered at the hands of the Chinese government, the ancient Roman government, or the Catholic Church. The greatest myth of Manichaeism is perhaps their creation myth which describes a battle waged between the World of Light and the World of Darkness, which began as two separate realms. Adam and Eve were said to have been created by the evil beings, while Jesus and Mani were said to have been created by the good beings, in order to reveal true spirituality to the human race. Many of Mani’s writings have been lost, but portions have recently been discovered.


Prophet Mani -


Mani, an Arsacid Persian by birth, was born 216 AD in Mesopotamia (Iraq), which was ruled by Persia, then within the Sassanid Empire province of Asuristan. According to the Cologne Mani-Codex, Mani's parents were members of the Jewish Christian Gnostic sect known as the Elcesaites.

Mani composed seven writings, six of which were written in Syriac Aramaic. The seventh, theShabuhragan, was written by Mani in Middle Persian and presented by him to the contemporary King of Sassanid PersiaShapur I, in the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. Although there is no proofShapur I was a Manichaean, he tolerated the spread of Manichaeism and refrained from persecuting it in his empire's boundaries.

According to one tradition it was Mani himself who invented the unique version of the Syriac script called Manichaean script, which was used in all of the Manichaean works written within the Persian Empire, whether they were in Syriac or Middle Persian, and also for most of the works written within the Uyghur Empire. The primary language of Babylon (and the administrative and cultural language of the Sassanid Empire) at that time was Eastern Middle Aramaic, which included three main dialects: Judeo-Aramaic (the language of the Talmud), Mandaean Aramaic (the language of theMandaean religion), and Syriac Aramaic, which was the language of Mani, as well as of the Syriac Christians.

While Manichaeism was spreading, existing religions such as Zoroastrianism were still popular and Christianity was gaining social and political influence. Although having fewer adherents, Manichaeism won the support of many high-ranking political figures. With the assistance of the Persian Empire, Mani began missionary expeditions. After failing to win the favour of the next generation of Persian royalty, and incurring the disapproval of the Zoroastrian clergy, Mani is reported to have died in prison awaiting execution by the Persian Emperor Bahram I. The date of his death is estimated at AD 276–277.

Spread of Manichaeism -

Manichaeism spread with extraordinary speed through both the east and west. It reached Rome through the apostle Psattiq by a.d. 280, who was also in Egypt in 244 and 251. It was flourishing in theFayum area of Egypt in 290. Manichaean monasteries existed in Rome in 312 during the time of the Christian Pope Miltiades.

In 291, persecution arose in the Persian empire with the murder of the apostle Sisin by Bahram II, and the slaughter of many Manichaeans. In 296, Diocletiandecreed against the Manichaeans: "We order that their organizers and leaders be subject to the final penalties and condemned to the fire with their abominable scriptures", resulting in martyrdom for many in Egypt and North Africa (see Diocletian Persecution). By 354, Hilary of Poitiers wrote that the Manichaean faith was a significant force in southern Gaul. In 381 Christians requested Theodosius I to strip Manichaeans of their civil rights. He issued a decree of death for Manichaean monks in 382.

More detailed pdf version will be upload soon stay tuned.

Wednesday, 20 July 2016

Lord Brahma - 5th head (Three stories from Purana) By Abir Maheshwari

1. Brahma Purana (Mount Sumera) :-

There was a war between the gods and the demons and the gods lost. The gods came to Brahma for advice and Brahma asked them to pray to Shiva.

When Shiva appeared before them, the gods said, “The demons have defeated us. Please kill them and save us.”

Shiva went to fight with the demons. He drove the demons off from Mount Sumeru and out of heaven. He pursued them to the ends of the earth. All this exertion made Shiva sweat. And wherever the drops of sweat fell down on the ground, terrible ogresses named matris were created. The matris also started to kill the demons and pursued them down to the underworld.

While the matris were killing the demons in the underworld, Brahma and the other dos waited on the banks of the river Goutami Ganga. This place came to be known as Pratishthana.

When the matris had killed all the demons, they returned to earth and began to live on the banks of the Goutami Ganga. This tirtha has come to be known as matritirtha.

Brahma used to have five heads. The fifth head was in the shape of a donkey’s head. When the demons were running away to the underworld, this donkey’s head addressed the demons and said, “why are you running away? Come back and fight with the gods. I shall aid you in your fight.”

The gods were alarmed at this paradoxical situation. Brahma was helping them in their flight with the demons and Brahma’s fifth head was trying to help the demons. They went to Vishnu and said, “Please cut off Brahma’s fifth head. It is causing too much of confusion.”

 “I can do what you want,” replied Vishnu, “but there is a problem. When the cut-off head falls on earth, it will destroy the earth. I think you should pray to Shiva to find a way out.”

The gods prayed to Shiva and Shiva agreed to cut off the head. But what was to be done with the severed head? The earth refused to bear it and so did the ocean. Finally it was decided that Shiva himself would bear the head.

The place where Shiva cut off Brahma’s fifth head is known as rudratirtha. Ever since that day, Brahma has had four heads and is known as Chaturmukha (chatur connotes four and mukha connotes face). There is a temple to Brahma on the banks of the Goutami Ganga. This is a holy place known as brahmatirtha. A killer of brahmanas is pardoned his sin if he visits this temple.


2. Brahma lied :-


Brahma lied that He had seen the top of Shiva's head -- the idea being that He had seen the "ends/beginning" of Truth/Time (represented by Shiva).

The Story...

Brahma at one point developed a significant ego claiming that he was the 1st of the trimurtis and should thus be worshipped over all. In discussing with his consort Sri Lakshmi, Lord Narayana is laughing saying “It is difficult enough when one head becomes full of ego; how much more difficult is it when all four of Brahmas heads are filled with egotistic pride?” Narayana and Shiva decide to teach Brahma a lesson. Shiva is of the opinion that Narayana is clearly the greatest, as He has the most difficult of responsibilities (sustenance is harder [requires proactive management] than either creation or dissolution). Narayana says "I have never seen the top of Shiva's head, so Shiva is clearly the greatest of us all, as He is beyond all knowledge." To resolve the dilemma, Shiva then says, let's pose a challenge that whosoever sees the top of my head is the greatest of the three. Brahma and Narayana accept the challenge. Brahma proceeds aggressively to locate the top of Shiva's head. Narayana gives up part way saying "As we keep going higher, Shiva's head continues to go on for eternity, there is no way that we will succeed, let us give up now and accept Shiva as the greatest of all." Brahma undeterred, proud, vain, and haughty keeps going upwards with the aim of seeing the top; Narayana returns after going part way, and upon prompting from Saraswati devi, He takes a different approach. He tells Saraswati, that "in this form, even I cannot see the top" and proceeds to take the Varaha avatar (boar) to dig into the bowels of creation to find Shiva's feet -- when he locates Shiva's feet and touches them, Shiva looks down with surprise to see who touched his feet, giving Narayana the opportunity to see the top of Shiva's head -- thus, proving the point that intellectual/egotistical efforts (like Brahma's method of trying to go "upwards" to find the top) will never lead to the ultimate knowledge, as knowledge itself keeps going on and on and on (knowledge is a limitless ocean), only self surrender at the feet of the Lord will enable you to attain that ultimate knowledge, knowing which, all else becomes known.

Here Shiva only curses Brahma that he will never be worshipped as God sbecause he had told a lie to win the competition -- Brahma uses falsified circumstantial evidence of the flower that fell from Shiva's head to say that He had seen the top, with a "white lie" saying "seeing the flower which fell from His head, is equivalent to seeing the top of His head." Thus, Shiva bans the use of this flower in His worship henceforth, and curses Brahma that he will never be worshipped by humans. In some versions, Shiva cuts off Brahma's 5th head because he lied with that head.

On the other hand, Shiva is profoundly astonished by Narayana's clever solution that enabled him to enact a "play within a play" in order to demonstrate this tattvam (principle) to Brahma.

The story also points out that mere intellectual efforts are insufficient for attaining the Supreme; one must, like a Boar, have dogged determination and intense bhakti to seek out the feet of the Supreme Lord, to attain the goal. The moral of the story being "those who speak the Truth in all circumstances are true devathas".

In this we can also see the tattvam of how Shiva worships Narayana, and how Narayana worships Shiva.


3. Dakshina Kali :-

As per Satpatha Brahmana, Brahma created a woman named Usha, who was epitome of feminity. Upon seeing her, Brahma was sexually aroused and approached his own daughter. He forced himself on her and they mated. At this, Lord Shiva appeared in the form of Bhairava and beheaded Brahma.

In Shiva Purana and Kalika Purana,  slight variations are introduced. Brahma creates twins, Sandhya and Kama along with Saptarishis. He bestows boon of wooing over Kama, as a result the wicked one tests his lust arrows on Brahma himself, who spills his semen virile while staring at Sandhya lustfully. Lord Shiva appears and rebukes Brahma for his passionate nature.

Thus humilliated by Lord Shiva, Brahma curses Kama to be killed by Lord Rudra. Also, to avenge his humilliation, Brahma requests Adi Parashakti to incarnate and woo Lord Shiva. In due course, She incarnates as Sati, the daughter of Prajapati Daksha and wins Lord Shiva by observing Nanda Vratam. Her marriage is arranged and Brahma is appointed the officiating priest. While Lord Shiva and Sati complete the Saptapadi ritual, Brahma lustfully stares at Sati's feet and spills his semen virile. He collects it in his Kamandalu and presses his penis with his feet so that no one notices. Sati feels disgusted by Brahma's act and an enraged Lord Shiva severes Brahma's fifth head then and there.

We find another version in Vamana Purana. Devas are terrified of an Asura called Dundubhi, and they seek refuge of Lord Shiva. Lord wages a fierce battle against Asuras and kills Dundubhi with his trident. Then He chases the escaping Asuras. While Brahma is seeing this, his fifth head, that resembles head of a donkey, speaks out "don't run. I will protect you". A furious Lord Shiva now grabs Brahma by his throat and severes the fifth head.

This are 3 stories from Puranas about Brahma 5th head.

Monday, 11 July 2016

1000 Names Of Lord Shiva

Shiva.. Mahadev.. Shankar.. Bholenath..
Very commonly pronounced names of Lord Shiva.
And many more to know many more to chant..
Lord Shiva was addressed by altogether 1000 names. And this names were addressed by The Grear Preserver Lord Vishnu with all the gods accompanying him in his mighty prayer to Lord Shiva.
Linga Puran discloses these names, which were addressed by lord Vishnu while praying to Shiva for Sudarshan Chakra (an astra/ disc shaped weapon).

The whole story goes as follows:

Once, a fierce war raged between the Gods and the demons. The gods received a sound thrashing and fled. While they were running away, they encountered Vishnu.
“Why are you running away?” asked Vishnu. “What on earth has happened?”
“The demons have defeated us,” replied the gods. “They have acquired all sorts of divine weapons, largely thanks to the boons that you have granted them. These weapons have made them close to invincible. You are our only hope now. Do you remember the wonderful weapon that was known as the sudarshana chakra? It was created by Shiva to kill Jalandhara. That is what is required now. Nothing esle will work.”
“I will help you,” promised Vishnu. “But we must first obtain the weapon, and to get it, we have to pray to Shiva”.
Vishnu and the other gods started to pray to Shiva. They called upon Shiva by his thousand names.

For convenience, to read we are arranging  those names in group of ten names each.

(1) Bhava, Shiva, Hara, Rudra, Purusha, Padmalochana, Arthitavya, Sadachara, Sarva, Shambhu.
(2) Maheshvara, Ishvara, Sthanu, Ishana, Sahasraksha, Sahasrapada, Variyana, Varada, Vandya, Shankara.
(3) Parameshvara, Gangadhara, Shuladhara, Pararthaikaprayojana, Sarvajna, Saradevadi, Giridhanva, Jatadhara, Chandrapida, Chandramouli
(4) Vidvana, Vishvamareshvara, Vedantasarasarvasva, Kapali, Nilalohita, Jnanadhara, Aparichedya, Gouribharta, Ganeshvara, Ashtamurti.
(5) Vishvamurti, Trivarga, Svargasadhana, Jnanagamya, Dridaprajna, Devadeva, Trilochana, Vamadeva, Mahadeva, Pandu.
(6) Paridrida, Vishvarupa, Virupaksha, Vagisha, Shuchi, Antara, Sarvapranayasvadi, Vrishanka, Vrishavahana, Isha.
(7) Pinaki, Khattangi, Chitravesha, Chirantana, Tomohara, Mahayogi. Brhamangahrita, Jati Kalakala, Krittivasa.
(8) Subhaga, Pranavatmaka, Unmattavesha, Chakshushya, Durvasa, Smarashasana, Dridayudha, Parameshthiparayana, Anadimadhyanidhana, Girisha.
(9) Girivandhava, Kuberavandhu, Shrikantha, Lokavarnottamottama, Samanya, Deva, Kodandi, Nilakantha, Parashvadhi, Vishalaksha.
(10) Mrigavyadha. Suresha, Suryatapana, Dharmakarmakshama, Ksehtra, Bhagavana, Bhaganetravida, Urgra, Pashupati, Tarkshya.
(11) Priyabhakta, Priyasvada, Dantodayakara, Daksha, Karpadi, Kamashasana, Shmashananilaya, Suksha, Shmashanastha, Maheshvara.
(12) Lokakarta, Bhutapati, Mahakarta, Mahoushadhi, Uttara, Gopati, Gopta, Jnanagamya, Puratana, Nita.
(13) Sunita, Shuddhatma, Soma, Somavrita, Sukhi, Somapa, Amritapa, Mahaniti, Mahamati, Ajatashatru.
(14) Aloka, Sambhavya, Havyavahana, Lokakara, Vedakara, Sutrakara, Sanatana, Maharshi, Kapilacharya, Vishvadipti.
(15) Trilochana, Pinakapani, Bhurdeva, Svastida, Sadasvastikrita, Tridhama, Soubhaga, Sarvasar-vajna, Sarvagochara, Brahmadhrika.
(16) Vishvasrika, Svarga, Karnikara, Priya, Kavi, Sahakhavishakha, Goshakha, Shiva, Naikya, Kratu.
(17) Gangaplavodaka, Bhava, Sakala, Supatisthira, Vijitatma, Vidheyatma, Bhutavahana, Sarathi, Sagana, Ganakarya.
(18) Sukirti, Chhinnasamshaya, Kamadeva, Kamapala, Bhasmodvulitavigraha, Bhasmapriya, Bhasmashayi, Kami, Kanta, Kritagama,
(19) Samayukta, Nivrittatma, Dharmayukta, Sadshiva, Chaturmukha, Chaturvahu, Duravasa, Durasada, Durgama, Durlabha.
(20) Durga, Sarga, Sarvayudhavisharda, Sutantu, Adhyatmayoganilaya, Tantuvarddhana, Shubhanga, Lokasagara, Amritashana, Bhasmashuddhikara.

(21) Meru, Ojasvi, Shuddhavigraha, Hiranyareta, Bharani, Marichi, Mahimalaya, Mahahrada, Mahagarbha, Siddharvrindaravandita.
(22) Vyaghracharmadhara, Vyali, Mahabhuta, Mahanidhi, Amritanga, Amritavapu, Panchayajna, Prabhanjana, Panchavimshatitattvajna, Parijataparavara.
(23) Sulabha, Suvrata, Shura, Vangmayanidhi, Nidhi, Varnashramaguru, Varni, Shatrujita, Shatrutapana, Ashrama, Kshapana.
(24) Kshama, Jnanavana, Achalachala, Pramanabhuta, Durjneya, Suparna, Vayuvahana, Dhanurddhara, Dhanurveda, Gunarashi.
(25) Gunakara, Anantadrishti, Ananda, Danda, Damayita, Dama, Abhivadya, Mahacharya, Vishvakarma, Visharada.
(26) Vitaraga, Vinitatma, Tapasvi, Bhutabhavan, Unmattavesha, Pracchanna, Jitakama, Ajitapriya, Kalyana, Prakriti.
(27) Kalpa, Sarvaloka, Prajapati, Tapasvitaraka, Dhimana, Pradhana, Prabhu, Avyayaya, Lokapa, Antarhitatma.
(28) Kalpadi, Kamalekshana, Vedashastrarthatattvajna, Nityama, Niyamashraya, Chandra, Surya, Shani, Ketu, Virama.
(29) Vidruchhavi , Bhaktigamya, Parabrahma, Mrigavanarpana, Anagha, Adrirajalya, Kanta, Paramatma, Jagadguru, Sarvakarmachala.
(30) Tvashta, Mangalya, Mangalarata, Mahatapa, Dirghatapa, Sthavishtha, Sthavira, Dhruva, Ahaha, Samvatsara.
(31) Vyapti, Pramana, Tapah, Samvatsarakra, Mantra, Pratyaya, Sarvadarshana, Aja, Sarveshvara, Snigddha.
(32) Sarvadi, Agnida, Vasu, Vasumana, Satya, Sarvapapahara, Hara, Amritashashvata, Shanta, Vanahasta.
(33) Pratapavana, Kamandaludhara, Dhanvi, Vedanga, Vedavit, Muni, Bhrajishnu, Bhojana, Bhokta, Lokaneta.
(34) Duradhara, Atindriya, Mahashaya, Sarvavasa, Chatushpatha, Kalayogi, Mahanada, Mahotsaha, Mahavala,, Mahabuddhi, Mahavirya.
(35) Bhutachari, Purandara, Nishachara, Pretachari, Mahashakti, Mahadyuti, Anirdeshyavapu, Shrimana, Sarvaharyamitagati, Vahushruta.
(36) Vahumaya, Niyatatma, Bhavodhava, Narataka, Ojastejodyutikara, Sarvakamaka, Nrityapriya, Nrityanritya, Prakashatmapratapa, Buddhaspashtakshara.
(37) Mantra, Sammana, Sarasamplava, Yugadikrita, Yugavarta, Gambhira, Vrishavahana, Ishta, Vishishta, Shishteshta.
(38) Sharabha, Sharabhadhanusha, Apangnidhi, Adhishtanavijaya, Jayakalavit, Pratishthita, Pramanajna, Hiranyakavacha, Hari, Virochana.
(39) Suragana, Vidyesha, Vibudhashraya, Valarupa, Balonmathi, Vivarta, Gahanagruru , Karana, Karta, Sarvavandhavimochana.
(40) Vidvattama, Vitabhaya, Vishvahbarta, Nishakara, Vyavasaya, Vyavasthana, Sthananda, Jagadadija, Dundubha, Lalita.
(41) Vishva, Bhavatmatmasthita, Vireshvara, Virabhadra, Viraha, Virabhrida, Virata, Virachudamani, Vetta,Tivrananda.

(42) Nadidhara, Ajnadhara, Trishuti, Shipivishita, Shivalaya, Valakhilya, Mahachapa, Tigmamashu, Nidhi, Avyaya.
(43) Abhirama, Susharanya, Subrahmanya, Sudhapati, Maghavana, Koushika, Gomana, Vishrama, Sarvashasana, Lalataksha.
(44) Vishvadeha, Sara, Samsarachakrabhita, Amoghadandi, Madhyastha, Hiranya, Brahmavarchasi, Paramartha, Paramaya, Shambara.
(45) Vyaghraka, Anala, Ruchi, Vararuchi, Vandya, Ahaspati, Aharpati, Ravivirocha, Skandha, Shasta.
(46) Vaivasvata, Ajana, Yukti, Unnatakirti, Shantaraga, Parajaya, Kailasapati, Kamari, Savita, Ravilochana.
(47) Vidvattama, Vitabhaya, Vishvaharta, Nitya, Anivarita, Niyatakalyana, Punyashravanadkirtana, Durashrava, Vishvasaha, Dhyeya.
(48) Duhsvapnanashana, Uttaraka, Dushkritiha, Durddharsha, Duhsaha, Abhaya, Anadi, Bhu, Bhulakshmi, Kiriti,
(49) Tridashadhipa, Vishvagopta, Vishvabharta, Sudhira, Ruchirangada, Janana, Janajanmadi, Pritimana, Nitimana, Naya.
(50) Vishishta, Kashyapa, Bhanu, Bhima, Bhimaparakrama, Pranava, Saptadhachara, Mahakaya, Mahamadhanu, Janmadhipa.
(51) Mahadeva, Sakaalagamaparaga, Tattvatativavivekatma, Vibhushnu, Bhutibhushana, Rishi, Brahmanavida, Jishnu, Janmamrityujaratiga, Yajna.
(52) Yajnapati, Yajva, Yajnanta, Amogha, Vikrama, Mahendra, Durbhara, Seni, Yajnanga, Yajnavahana.
(53) Panchabrahmasamutpatti, Vishvesha, Vimalodaya, Atmayoni, Anadyanta, Shadavimsha, Saptalodhaka, Gayatrivallabha, pramshu, Vishvavasa.
(54) Prabhakara,Shishu, Girirata, Samrata, Sushena, Surashatruha, Aristamathana, Mukunda, Vigatajvara, Svayamjoti.
(55) Anujyoti, Atmajayoti, Achanchala, Kapila, Kapilashmashru, Shastranetra, Trayitanu, Jnanaskandha, Mahajnani, Nirutapatti.
(56) Upaplava, Bhaga, Vivasvana, Aditya, Yogacharya, Brihaspati, Udarakirti, Udyogi, Sadyogi, Sadasanmaya.
(57) Nakshatramali, Narakesha, Sadhishtana, Shadashraya, Pavitrapani, Papari, Manipura, Manogati, Hritpundarikasina, Shukla.
(58) Shantavrishakapi, Vishnu, Grahapati, Krishna, Samartha, Arthanashana, Adharmashatru, Akshashya, Puruhuta, Purushtuta.
(59) Brahmagarbha, Vrihadagarbha, Dharmadhenu, Dhanagama, Jagatahitaishi, Supata, Kumara, Kushalagama, Hiranyavarna, Jyotishmana.
(60) Nanbhutadhara, Dhvani, Aroga, Niyamadhyaksha, Vishvamitra, Dvijottama, Vrihajyoti, Sudhama, Mahajyoti, Anuttama.
(61) Matamaha, Matarishva, Nabhasvana, Nagaharadhrika, Pulastya, Pulaha, Agastya, Jatukarna, Parashara, Niravarana.
(62) Dharmajna, Virincha, Vishtarashrava, Atmabhu, Aniruddha, Atrijnanamurti, Mahayasha, Lokachudamni, Vira, Chandasatya.
(63) Parakrama, Vyalakalpa, Mahavriksha, Kanadhara, Alankarishnu, Achala, Rochishnu, Vikramottama, Vegi, Ashushabdapati.
(64) Plavana, Shikhisarathi, Asamsrishta, Atithi, Shatrupramthi, Papanashana, Vasushrava, Kavyavaha, Pratapta, Vishvabhojana.
(65) Jarya, Jaradhishamana, Lohita, Tananapata, Prishadashva, Nabhahyoni, Supratika, Tamisraha, Shiva atapana, MegphapaksShiva

(66) Parapuranjaya, Mukhanila, Sunispanna, Surabhi, Shishiratmaka, Vasanta, Madhava, Grishma, Nabhasya, Vijavahana.
(67) Angira, Muni, Atreya, Vimala, Vishvavahana, Pavana, Purujita, Shatru, Trividya, Naravahana.
(68) Manovriddhi, Ahamkara, Kshetrajna, Kshetrapalaka, Tejonidhi, Jnananidhi, Vipaka, Vighnakaraka, Adhara, Anuttara.
(69) Jneya, Jyestha, Nihshreyasalaya, Shaila, Naga, Tanu, Deha, Danavari, Arindama, Charudhi.
(70) Janaka, Charuvishalya, Lokashalyakrita, Chaturveda, Chaturbhava, Chatura, Chaturapriya, Amnaya, Samamaya, Tirthadevashivalaya.
(71) Vahurupa, Maharupa, Sarvarupa, Charachara, Nyayanirvahaka, Nyaya, Nyayagamya, Niranjana, Sahasramurddha, Devendra.
(72) Sarvashastraprabhanjana, Munda, Virupa, Vikrita, Dandi, Gunottama, Pingalaksha, Haryaksha, Nilagriva, Niramaya.
(73) Sahasravahu, Sarvesha, Sharanya, Sarvalokbhrita, Padmasana, Paramjyoti, Paravara, Paramfala, Padmagarbha, Vishvagarbha.
(74) Vichakshana, Paravarajna, Vijesha, Sumukhasumahasana, Devasuragurudeva, Devasurananmaskrita, Devasuramahatra, Devadideva, Devarshidevasuravaraprada, Devasureshvara.
(75) Divya, Devasuramaheshvara, Sarvadevamaya, Achintya, Devatatma, Atmasambhava, Idya, Anisha, Devasimha, Divakara.
(76) Vibudhagravarashreshta, Sarvadevottamottama, Shivajnanarata, Shrimana, Shikhishriparvatapriya, Jayastambha, Vishishtambha, Narasimhanipatana, Brahmachari, Lokachari.
(77) Dharmachari, Dhanadhipa, Nandi, Nandishvara, Nagna, Nagnavratadhara, Shuchi, Lingadhyaksha, Suradhyaksha, Yugadhyaksha.
(78) Yugavaha, Svavasha, Savamsha, Svargasvara, Svaramayasvana, Vijadhyaksha, Vijakarta, Dhanakrita, Dharmavardhana, Dambha.
(79) Adambha, Mahadambha, Sarvabhutamaheshvara, Shmashananilaya, Tishya, Setu, Apratimakriti, Lokottara, Sfutaloka, Tryamabaka.
(80) Andhakari, Makhadveshi, Vishnukandharapatana, Vitadosha, Akshayaguna, Dakshari, Pushadantahrita, Dhurjati, Khandaparashu, Safala.
(81) Nishfala, Anagha, Adhara, Sakaladhara, Mrida, Pandurabha, Nata, Purna, Purayita, Punya.
(82) Sukumara, Sulochana, Samageya, Priyakara, Punyakirti, Anamaya, Manojava, Tirthavara, Jatila, Jiviteshvara.
(83) Jivitantakara, Nitya, Vasureta, Vasukiya, Sadgati, Satkriti, Sakta, Kalakantha, Kaladhara, Mani.
(84) Manya, Mahakala, Sadbhuti, Satyaparayana, Chandrasanjivana, Shasta, Lokaguda, Amaradhipa, Lokavandhu, Lokanatha.
(85) Kritajnakritibhushana, Anapayakshara, Kanta, Sarvashastrabhutasvara, Tejomayadyutidhara, Lokamaya, Agrani, Anu, Shuchismita, Prasannatma.
(86) Durjaya, Duratikrama, Jyotirmaya, Nirakara, Jagannatha, Jaleshvara, Tumbavini, Mahakaya, Vishoka, Shokanashana.
(87) Trilokatma, Trilokesha, Shuddha, Shuddhi, Rathakshaja, Avyaktalakshana, Avyakta, Vishampati, Varashila, Varatula.
(88) Mana, Manadhanamaya, Brahma, Vishnu, Prajapalaka, Hamsa, Hamsagati, Yama, Vedha, Dhata.
(89) Vidhata, Atta, Harta, Chaturmukha, Kailashashikharavasi, Sarvavasi, Satamgati, Hiranyagarbha, Harnia, Purusha.
(90) Purvajapita, Bhutalaya, Bhutapati, Bhutida, Bhuvaneshvara, Samyogi, Yogavida, Brahmanya, Brahmanapriya, Devapriya.
(91) Devanatha, Devajna, Devachintaka, Vishamaksha, Kaladhyaksha, Vrishanka, Vrishavardhana, Nirmada, Nirahamkara.
(92) Nirmoha, Nirupadrava, Darpaha, Darpita, Dripta, Sarvartuparivartaka, Saptajihva, Sahasrachi, Snigddha, Prakritidakshina.
(93) Bhutabhavyabhavanatha, Prabhava, Bhrantinashana, Artha, Anartha, Mahakosha, Parakavyaikapandita, Nishkantaka, Kritananda, Nirvyaja.
(94) Vyajamardana, Sattvavana, Sattvika, Satyakirti, Stambhakritagama, Akampita, Gunagrahi, Suprita, Sumukha, Naikatmanaikakarmakrita.
(95) Sukshma, Shukara, Dakshina, Skandhadhara, Dhurya, Prakata, Pritivarddhana, Aparajita, Sarvasaha, Vidagddha.
(96) Sarvavahana, Adhrita, Svadhrita, Sadhya, Purtamurti, Yashodhara, Varahashringavrika, Vayu, Valavana, Ekanayaka.
(97) Shrutiprakasha, Shrutimana, Ekavandhu, Anekadhrika, Shrivallabha, Shivarambha, Shantabhadra, Samanjasa, Bhushaya, Bhutikrita,
(98) Bhuti, Bhushana, Bhutavahana, Akaya, Bhaktakayastha, Kalajnanai, Kalavapu, Satyavrata, Mahatyagi, Nishthashantiparayana.
(99) Pararthavritti, Varada, Vivittana, Shrutisagara, Anirvinna, Kalankanka, Kalankaha, Svabhavarudra.
(100) Madhyastha, Shatrughna, Madhyanashaka, Shikhandi, Kavachi, Shuli, Chandi, Mundi, Kundali, Khadgi.

Lord Vishnu and the other gods prayed to Lord Shiva by calling upon him by these thousand names and offering him lotus flowers. Shiva wished to test Vishnu. So he quietly removed a lotus from the ones that had been offered.
Vishnu realised the deception. He plucked out one of his own eye **(in Sanskrit eye is known as PADMA and lotus is also known as PADMA)** and rendered it to Shiva as an offering in place of the flower. This pleased Shiva and he appeared. Such was his radiance that the gods, other than Vishnu, could not bear to look at him.
Shiva presented Vishnu with the divine sudarshana chakra. He also restored Vishnu’s eye.

Sunday, 10 July 2016

Indian Mythology - Isvara, Jiva, Prakriti. (Info inshort)

Isvara

Both nirguna brahman and Isvara are accepted and worshipped. Entire world is the play or lila of Isvara. And Isvara hence could be worshipped as sakara. This can also be understood in the light that Viśiṣṭādvaita is religion + philosophy. Both upasana and Vedānta are closely knit.

The eternal is said to be five-fold, and worshipped in these five forms:

Para - The eternal being. This is Sri Maha Vishnu in times of non-creation in Vaikuntha, sleeping in the coils of infinity.

Vyuha - The one with four aspects, Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha (Vishnu Shasranama praises Him as caturvyuha, or having four vyuhas).

Antaryamin - The One (as soul) that pervades all creation.

Vibhava - The glorious incarnations of God, such as Sri Rama and Sri Krishna.

Arca - The forms of worship, such as incarnations, idols. Example of Arca-avatara is Venkateswara.


Jiva

Jiva (individual soul) is said to be anu (indivisible),avyakta (unmanifest), acintya (unthinkable), nirvikara (having no distortion or transformation) and jnanasraya (the abode of knowledge). Jiva is an indivisible part of Isvara.

There are three types of Jivas, bound, liberated and eternal. Any Jiva prior to liberation or moksha is said to be bound. Post liberation the Jiva is mukta, and merges in Isvara. There are eternal jivas too, that are not bound but exist - such as devatas, consorts, servants, vehicles of Vishnu (Garuda, Java-Vijaya etc).


Prakriti

Prakriti is the cause of manifestation. It causes the three consiousness qualities, satva, rajas and tamas. There are two forms of satva, suddha satva and misra satva. Suddha satva is one that is not touched by rajas and tamas - this is the one that manifests in Vaikuntha, creating the "eternal" beings like Garuda and Anata. This is said to be nitya vibhuti. The phenomenal world is caused by misra satva, a combination of all the three qualities. This is said to be lila vibhuti.


-India Mythology (Short Info).