Saturday, 31 December 2016

Major Dhyanchand (Hockey wizard) By Abir Maheshwari

Jhansi boy, the world's most ruthless man feared

There was a dark night. Be sure to give the light of the moon was shining. Green field under a 17-18 year old boy was playing hockey. See all enjoy a good laugh. "Come get girlfriends' teasing questions as well. Dhyan Singh was unperturbed by the military plays hockey. Bale Tiwari said the centurion see the passion of the disciples glad, "as in the light of the moon to be working hard. Cmkoge moon as a day of hockey. I notice you today not today 'Dhyan Chand as' call.' Thus begins the story of the hockey player, which gave the world the wizard name.

August 29, 1905 and 3 December 1979 Intkal the Dhyan Chand was born. Read some interesting stories of life Dhyan Chand.

1. 16-year-old joined the army Dhyan

Dhyan Chand's father was in the Army. Was often transferred. Was bound to disturb the studies. Only missed class six. In 1922 at the tender age of 16, joined the Army on the post of constable. The regiment was named "First Brahmin Regiment '. Interestingly, the military comes to play hockey before Dhyan Chand was not nor was interested. Played by people in the military in mind roused aspire. Sub undertook to teach children Tiwari. Taught the nuances. Made hard. Singh also spearheaded focus hard and one day become the country's best hockey players.

2. The first foreign tour

Year 1926. The Army wanted to be New Zealand's hockey team. The players began to look for. Dhyan Chand was also aspire, rather than say anything to anyone on the practice continued. I explained that if the mind fit, will get the chance. Then one day the commanding officer called and said, 'Young man, you're going to New Zealand to play hockey. "

Dhyan Chand was so happy that there was a word of mouth. Salute imposed and come out. It was the first time the Indian hockey team which went abroad. A total of 21 matches played by the team in New Zealand. 18 buried in the flag of victory. India scored the 192, of which 100 goals were just Dhyan Chand. Complete with the reality on the field hockey team was knocked.

3. Dhyan Chand stayed 24 hours in the reception traffic of ships

Gold in the Olympics in 1928, the Indian hockey team returned to Bombay. Reception at Bombay Dockyard cargo ships were stopped at sea. Movement of ships was not even 24 hours. Crowds of thousands. North-West Frontier Province in 1928, transferred Dhyan Chand Waziristan (now in Pakistan) was, where it was tough to play hockey. Was a hilly area. Had ground. This is because we have failed with regard to selection of the 1932 Olympics, Dhyan Chand.

4. Colonel snapped Dhyan, now will not lose any

21-year-old team beat New Zealand in 1926 were attended by Dhyan Chand. British military officials raised the rank of lance-hero Dhyan extra. There was reason to. India had won 21 of the 18 matches in New Zealand. Indian hockey team had lost a match in New Zealand. Colonel George Dhyan Chand's hockey team returned to India to ask why India's team lost a match this is the Dhyan Chand that he felt the remaining 10 players are behind them. The next question, then what will happen next. The answer is that no one will lose out. After the demonstration and answer became the Dhyan Chand Nk.

5. borrowing reached Olympic hockey team

Year 1928. Amsterdam was the Olympics. India's first national team to the player to choose explored. Many teams in the country were made to match. Dhyan Chand played for the United Provinces were chosen. The problem came to Rs. Hockey Union only Itte bucks were involved, which could be 11 players Amsterdam. 2 could not be sent to other players. Then came forward to help the Bengal Hockey Association.

6. When the first-ever the wizard said

Saddi team made history in Amsterdam Olympics. Won one match. Then came the title match. On May 26 1928. The atmosphere was not used to foreigners. Dhyan Chand was ill several players. But just feeling battered, was not encouraging. Holland is today's hockey champion, was defeated 3-0 in the final to us. Dhyan Chand had two goals. Borrowing Olympic team came to play, he had become world champion.

After the Olympics, Dhyan Chand's name first "wizard" words added. Foreign newspapers in the match, "magic, wizard, magic wand" used as Words. They also say that the wife of a British high officials from Dhyan Chand Hockey Challenge had to play instead of closing the umbrella, which was completed smiling Dhyan Chand. Since that time, India was a slave, because hockey match had to play under the banner of the Union Jack.

7. brother Fhrai victory in the Olympic flag

Dhyan Chand Roop Singh also impressed by his brother began to play hockey. Hard. Good player. That opportunity came again, with both brothers played in the Olympics. 1932 Olympics will take place in Los Angeles. The team was to be chosen. On behalf of the Army and the United Provinces from Dhyan Chand Roop Singh was elected to the Indian hockey team. The problem this time was Rs. Punjab National Bank to help. Jitti amount on the bank, he was able to do no good. Bengal Hockey Association extended a helping hand. Your team won the Olympics, the hectic round. August 14, 1932 was the final match of the US. We have scored 24 goals compared to 1 watt of Americans set. India had become world champion once again.

8. Dhyan Chand foreign woman said, 'what u got in?'

So far, each side of the Indian hockey team was set Bukal. Germany sent a message to India that if your team will come to us, we will raise the cost. Then the Indian team, many matches and 4 goals in the last match to beat Berlin -11. Dhyan Chand too far abroad were crazy. It's a fun anecdote connected. Dhyan Chand, a young woman in Czechoslovakia and they were impressed with the game and said, 'You're an Angel look like, what do I do what?' The Dhyan Chand hearing nervous and said, "Sorry, I am married. Please forgive me. '

9. Olympic torch lit by sunlight

The 1936 Olympics were held in Germany. There was the Hitler regime. Dhyan Chand's name was not on the list of the first team. Plenty happened organically. Dhyan Chand was the captain of the team. Berlin marks the swastika was engraved on the walls on each side of the Nazi Party. Hitler had shouted. The Olympics were arranged very expensive. Olympic torch lit from rays of the sun for the first time. The first Olympic Games that were shown on television. India's performance in the tournament have been fantastic.

10. Hitler's team played against the wounded Dhyan

India at the Olympics was in 1936 against Germany. Hitler Germany's national team. The match was scheduled for August 14. It rained for the match has been postponed until August 15. On August 15, the match began. Germany players aggressively. Dhyan Chand's teeth hurt. Some time had to leave the field. Dhyan Chand returned to the field in an injured condition. Explained to teammates. Instead, the great game play. Dhyan Chand began with the return frantic goal scorer.

11. Hitler ran leave the field

The final between Germany and India. Dhyan Chand's team in the early minutes of the match to Germany to see a washing Hitler left the stadium. India defeated Germany 8 goals against 1.

12. Hitler offered Dhyan Chand rejected

Dhyan Chand was on each side of the posts. German dictator Hitler was unaware of the incidents. India and Germany in the match for long Hitler was not on the field. Completion was scheduled for August 16 at the Olympics. Dhyan Chand was the face of Hitler. Indian hockey team gold medal was wearing. Hitler met when Dhyan Chand was so impressed that he Itta-general in his army offered. Dhyan Chand turned down the offer spontaneous. Dhyan Chand's hockey team returned to the country and the strong reception.
What people say about Dhyan Chand played ball with his hockey stick was stuck c. People would suspect. Dhyan Chand Hockey Breaking seen too many times. The new hockey handed them, yet he played just as wondrous. December 2, 1979, when he said goodbye to the world, then on his body two hockey sticks Cross maintained. After they went blurred Indian hockey's golden period. Dhyan Chand on the grounds on which the "magic" show, they were registered in history.

Hope you'll find this post Informative.
- Kamal

Monday, 5 December 2016

Rezang La War - Untold Story

Rezang-La unheard of War saga 

India with China in 1962. Only a few people who prefer to remember the war. The reason is simple ...

The 1962 war wounds are so deep that no one does not want to scrape her countrymen. Even the Indian army that does not seem to talk much about the war. But it is not only the 1962 war has just wound us. The war taught us that even in extreme conditions the soldiers fight bravely not only know, sacrificed their lives to defend the country's borders do not know,

But The Enemy's Teeth to Sour. 

During the war in 1962, Indian troops in Ladakh Rezang-La Chinese soldiers who had fought Indian forces him not only with China but also the world's armies, for instance, does not forget to watch and learn.

China invaded Tibet, and the Dalai Lama fled to India then capture political asylum in India and China since relations had soured immensely. The Chinese intrusion in Ladakh and in several border areas after the capture by the Indian Army in the area was beginning to develop its forward-post. India believes that China in these border areas by road because their post or their officials was submitted because these areas were vacant. For years that area known as no men Land, China took advantage of this. The then Prime Minister in the cold desert of Ladakh, in the border areas were barren and charged him to build his post.

Chushul in Ladakh region, at an altitude of nearly 16,000 feet, close to the Indian Army Rezangla Pass was prepared by a post. This post was given the responsibility of protecting a company of 13-Kumaon Regiment led by Major 'Shaitan Singh' was (Bhati). 123 personnel, mostly in the company of Haryana's Rewari district Ahir (Yadav) included. Chushul evil eye on the Chinese army was engaged. In any case, he wanted to capture the Chushul. Given that Chinese troops had been camping in the area.

Consequently, when in October 1962, from Ladakh NEFA (Arunachal Pradesh) Indian Soldier foot were uprooted and Chinese army had entered the Indian territory, then Rezang-La where the only battle that was fought Indian troops China's PLA had proved to be.

November 17 The Chinese army stationed in Rezang-La tremendous attack on Indian soldiers. Chinese troops under a plan to bring Rejhang-soldiers surrounded the two sides, the Indian army guns (Artillery) could not use. But .303 (three-not-three) and brain-pistol through the Kumaon Regiment of the 123 young Indian Soldier was Facing - Chinese army Cannon, Mortars and Automatic Weapons, which included machine-gun. A large number of these men by their heroism Chinese soldiers were killed. But the Chinese army constantly re-Enforcement was sending troops to help.

Major Shaitan Singh arrived at the company's five platoons of its personnel were in- spired. Meanwhile 13-Kumaon company leader Major Shaitan Singh was injured after being hit shots. Two young when they were lifted to safety when they saw Chinese soldiers.

PVC(Param veer Chakra) winner(posthumous) Major Shaitan Singh

Shaitan Singh lives of its men were not put at risk at any cost. He himself refused to be taken to safety. Singh injured seals between devil condition remained the same. On the other hand, died with his gun in hand.
Two days, the Chinese PLA soldiers are preventable. November 18, 109 Soldier out of 123 which young company commander Major Shaitan Singh was also defending the nation had 'Embraced Death'. But the end result, that Indian troops were fired. Despite not give in to China to lay the remaining troops.

Indian intelligence agency RAW (Research and Anelises Wing), former officer RK Yadav, in his book "Mission R & W" in describing the battle of Rezang-La wrote that one of the remaining troops without any weapons and bullets 'Sinhram' Chinese troops took hold of started hitting. Mall specializes in war 'Sinhram' wrestler grabbed by the hair and the one Chinese soldier crashed into the hill-hit shot to death. The way he was killed ten Chinese soldiers.

Infused with patriotic song written by lyricist Pradeep Lata Mangeshkar had sung immortal keeping in mind the fact he probably was composed Rezag-La war.
China points out that the prisoner had made Five Indian soldiers in this battle and Nine soldiers were wounded.

Indian soldiers bravely defeated Chinese troops did not dare to come down from the mountain now. And China could not capture any Chushul. In Rewari, Haryana on these Ahir monument made in memory of the soldiers wrote that China had 1700 soldiers killed. Although no one knows the reality. In these battles, the soldiers who laid down their saga because there is no one to tell. And China ever going to tell about the damage to their troops. So much so that the Chinese army in Rezang-La but suffered heavy losses.

Veergati received posthumously Major Shaitan Singh was awarded the country's highest medal of Param Veer Chakra. Major Shaitan Singh and Ahir soldiers in memory of their heroic Rezang-La a war memorial erected near Chushul. Every year on November 18 to remember these brave soldiers,

“शहीदों की चितांओं पर लगेंगे हर बरस मेले… देश में मर-मिटनेवालों का बस यही एक निशां होगा…”

In Memory Of Charlie Company, 13-Kumaon Regiment, Rezang-La Post- Chushul.

18 November 1962.

Jai Hind.

-Written by Kamal.

Wednesday, 10 August 2016

The 16 Samskaras or Sanskar in Hinduism By Abir Maheshwari

Hindus believe that every aspect of life is sacred. That is why each significant stage, from conception to cremation, is celebrated as a reminder that life is a gift from God which should be duly respected and lived according to His wishes. The nearest English word for samskara is sacrament, related to the phrase 'rite of passage'.

Although the number of samskaras prescribed by various scriptures vary, there are sixteen that are a consensus among scholars.

These 16 samskaras are:

Pre-natal Samskaras

(1) Garbhadan (Conception)
'Garbha' means womb. 'Dan' means donation. In this sacrament the man places his seed in a woman.
The Gruhyasutras and Smrutis advocate special conditions and observances for this, to ensure healthy and intelligent progeny. Procreation of children was regarded as necessary for paying off debts to the forefathers.
Another reason for having progeny is given in the Taittiriya Upanishad. When the student ends his Vedic studies, he requests permission to leave from his teacher (see Samskara 14). The teacher then blesses him with some advice which he should imbibe for life. One of the commands is:
"Prajaatantu ma vyavyachchhetseehi..."
(Shikshavalli, Anuvak 11.11)
"Do not terminate one's lineage - let it continue (by having children)."

(2) Pumsavana (Engendering a male issue)
Pumsavana and Simantonayana (the third samskara) are only performed during the woman's first issue. Pumsavana is performed in the third or fourth month of pregnancy when the moon is in a male constellation, particularly the Tishya-nakshatra. This symbolises a male child. Therefore the term pumsavana literally means 'male procreation'. Sushrut, the ancient rishi of Ayurveda, has described the procedure in his Sushruta Samhita:
"Having pounded milk with any of these herbs - Sulakshmana, Batasurga, Sahadevi and Vishwadeva - one should instil three or four drops of juice in the right nostril of the pregnant woman. She should not spit out the juice."

(3) Simantonayana (Hair-parting)
In Gujarati this is known as Khodo bharavo. In this, the husband parts the wife's hair.
The religious significance of this samskara is to bring prosperity to the mother and long life to the unborn child. It also wards off evil influence. The physiological significance is interesting and advanced.
Sushrut (Sharirsthan, Ch.33) believed that the foetus's mind formed in the fifth month of pregnancy. Hence the mother is required to take the utmost care for delivering a healthy child. Stipulating the details, Sushrut enjoined the pregnant mother to avoid exertion of all kinds: refrain from sleeping during the day and keeping awake at night, and also avoid fear, purgatives, phlebotomy (blood letting by slicing veins) and postponing natural excretions. (Sharirsthan, Ch.21).

Childhood Samskaras
(4) Jatakarma (Birth rituals) These rituals are performed at the birth of the child. It is believed that the moon has a special effect on the newly born. In addition, the constellation of the planets - nakshatras - also determine the degree of auspiciousness. If birth occurs during an inauspicious arrangement, the jatakarmas are performed to ward off their detrimental effects on the child. The father would also request the Brahmanishtha Satpurush for blessings.

(5) Namkaran (Name-giving) Based on the arrangement of the constellations at birth, the child is named on a day fixed by caste tradition. In the Hindu Dharma, the child is frequently named after an avatar, deity, sacred place or river, saint, etc., as a constant reminder of the sacred values for which that name represents.

(6) Nishkrama (First outing)
In the third month the child is allowed agni (fire) and chandra (moon) darshan. In the fourth month he is taken out of the house for the first time, by the father or maternal uncle, to the mandir for the Lord's darshan.

(7) Annaprashan (First feeding)
Feeding the child with solid food is the next important samskara. For a son this is done in even months - the 6th, 8th, 10th or 12th months. For a daughter this is done in odd months - 5th, 7th or 9th months. The food offered is cooked rice with ghee. Some sutras advocate honey to be mixed with this. By advocating this samskara, the wise sages accomplished two important considerations. First, the child is weaned away from the mother at a proper time. Second, it warns the mother to stop breast feeding the child. For, an uninformed mother, many out of love, continue breast feeding the child, without realising that she was not doing much good to herself or the child.

(8) Chudakarma (Chaul) (Shaving of head)
This samskara involves shaving the head (of a son) in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 5th year, or when initiating him with the janoi (Upanayan). According to Sushrut, the significance of this, together with nail cutting, is to give delight, lightness, prosperity, courage and happiness (Chikitsasthan. Ch. 24-72). Charak also voiced a similar opinion.
A tuft of hair (shikha, chotli) is left in place at the top of the head for longevity. Sushrut points out its significance
"Inside the head, near the top, is the joint of a shira (artery) and a sandhi (critical juncture). There, in the eddy of hairs, is a vital spot called the adhipati (overlord). Any injury to this part causessudden death" (Sharirsthan Ch. VI, 83).
In the course of time, the shikha was regarded as a symbol of the Hindu Dharma and its removal came to be regarded as a grave sin (Laghu Harita IV).

(9) Karnavedh (Piercing the earlobes)
The child's ear lobes are pierced either on the 12th or 16th day; or 6th, 7th or 8th month; or 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th or 9th year.
Sushrut reasoned,
"The ears of a child should be pierced for protection (from diseases such as hydrocoele and hernia) and decoration" (Sharirasthan Ch.16.1, Chikitsasthan Ch.19.21).
One sutra says that a goldsmith should pierce the ears while Sushrut advocates a surgeon. For a boy, the right earlobe is pierced first and for a girl, the left. For boys today, this samskara is only prevalent in some states of India. In girls, this samskara has lost its religious significance and is only performed to enable them to wear earrings.

Educational Samskaras

(10) Vidyarambh (Learning the alphabet)
This samskara is also known as Akshararambha,AksharlekhanAksharavikaran and Aksharavishkaran.
It is performed at the age of five and is necessary before commencing Vedic study - Vedarambh.
After bathing, the child sits facing west, while the acharya (teacher) sits facing east. Saffron and rice are scattered on a silver plank. With a gold or silver pen the child is made to write letters on the rice. The following phrases are written:"Salutation to Ganesh, salutation to Sarasvati (goddess of knowledge), salutation to family deities and salutation to Narayan and Lakshmi." The child then writes, "Aum Namah Siddham". He then presents gifts to the acharya, such as a pagh and safo (head adornment of cloth). The acharya then blesses the child.

(11) Upanayan (Yagnopavit) (Sacred thread initiation)
 At the age of eight the son is initiated by the acharya with the sacred thread, known as janoi or yagnopavit. Amongst all the foregoing samskaras this is regarded as supreme. It is the dawn of a new life, hence dvija - twice born. The child enters studentship and a life of perfect discipline which involves brahmacharya (celibacy). He leaves the guardianship of his parents to be looked after by the acharya. This samskara is performed by Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, for both boys and girls. Therefore, both the boy and girl received training in discipline, truthful living and physical service. During the course of time this samskara ceased to be given to girls, who thus failed to be formally educated. Today, the tradition of education underlying this samskara has died out.

(12) Vedarambh (Beginning Vedic study)
This samskara was not mentioned in the earliest lists of the Dharma Sutras, which instead listed the four Vedic vows - Ved Vrats. It seemed that though upanayan marked the beginning of education, it did not coincide with Vedic study. Therefore a separate samskara was felt necessary to initiate Vedic study. In this samskara, each student, according to his lineage, masters his own branch of the Vedas.

(13) Keshant (Godaan) (Shaving the beard)
This samskara is included as one of the four Ved Vrats. When the other three faded, keshant itself became a separate samskara. 'Kesh' means hair and 'ant' means end. This samskara involves the first shaving of the beard by the student at the age of sixteen. It is also called Godaanbecause it involves gifting a cow to the acharya and gifts to the barber.
Since the student now enters manhood he is required to be more vigilant over his impulses of youth. To remind him of his vow of brahmacharya, he is required to take the vow anew; to live in strict continence and austere discipline for one year.

(14) Samavartan (End of Studentship)
This samskara is performed at the end of the brahmacharya phase - the end of studentship. 'Sama vartan' meant 'returning home from the house of the acharya.' This involves a ritual sacrificial bath known as Awabhruth Snan. It is sacrificial because it marks the end of the long observance of brahmacharya. It is a ritual bath because it symbolises the crossing of the ocean of learning by the student - hence Vidyasnaatak - one who has crossed the ocean of learning. In Sanskrit literature, learning is compared to an ocean.
Before the bath, the student has to obtain permission from the acharya to end his studentship and give him guru-dakshina - tuition fees. Permission is necessary because it certifies the student as a person fit in learning, habit and character for a married life. Obviously the student is not in a position to pay fees. One Sutra describes the debt of the teacher as unpayable, "Even the earth containing the seven continents is not sufficient for the guru-dakshina."
Those students who wished to remain as lifelong students observing brahmacharya would remain with the acharya. Today, this means accepting a spiritual guru - an Ekantik Satpurush and becoming a sadhu. The student thus bypasses the next two ashrams, to enter sannyas.

(15) Vivaha
This is the most important of all the Hindu Samskaras. The Smrutis laud the gruhastha (householder) ashram as the highest, for it is the central support of the other three ashrams.
Manu enjoins, "Having spent the first quarter of one's life in the guru's house, the second quarter in one's own house with the wife, and the third quarter in the forest, one should take sannyas in the fourth, casting away every worldly tie."(Manu Smruti IV.1).
By marriage an individual is able to achieve the four purusharths (endeavors) of life: dharma (righteousness), artha (wealth), kama (desire) and moksha (salvation). He is also able to pay off ancestral debt by having children.
Procreation for children is also a primary purpose of marriage.

(16) Antyesthi (Death rites)
Antyeshti is the final samskara in a Hindu's life. Yajur Veda regards vivaha as the sixteenth samskara while Rig Veda considers antyeshti. Though performed after the death of a person by his relatives, it is of importance because the value of the next world is higher than that of the present. The final rituals are performed with meticulous care with the help of Brahmin priests.
The first ritual after death is to place a few tulsi leaves and a few drops of water in the mouth of the dead person. It is then laid on the floor which has been purified by applying the sacred cowdung. The old clothes are removed and the body is bathed with sanctified water. The body is then covered with one piece of a new, unbleached, uncut cloth (kafan). It is then laid on a bier (nanami) made of bamboo canes tied with jute strings. The underlying message in removing the old clothes can be gleaned from a Sanskrit verse:
"Dhanãni bhumau pashavashcha goshthe,
Nãri gruhadware sakhã smashãne,
Dehashchitãyãm paraloka mãrge,
Dharmãnugo gachhati jiva ekaha."
"Wealth will remain buried, cattle will remain in the pen, (his) wife will accompany (him) to the doorway, friends will accompany him to the crematorium, the body will come till the funeral pyre, but on the path to the next world, the jiva goes alone (with his karmas)

 In some schools of Hinduism, the psychological concept of Sanskara is also known as vasana. The most extensive, but divergent discussions of these rites of passage are found in the numerous Dharmasutras and Grhyasutras from the 1st millennium BCE.

- Histence 2016.

Sunday, 24 July 2016

Forgotten Religion - Manichaeism

The ancient world was home to a huge variety of religions and belief systems. Most have faded away, their temples and statues vanished or half-sunk in the desert sand, their gods barely remembered. This is one of the many religions founded before most of the main religions of today (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam) and most of them have completely died out — although some are being revived by new practitioners.

Founded in the third century A.D. by a Persian man named Mani, Manichaeism was originally viewed as a heretical Christian sect, but has since been recognized as its own religion. Its founder claimed he was bringing together all the world’s religions, including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Christianity. In fact, quite a few apocryphal Christian writings would have been lost had it not been for the Manichaeans. Focused on the difference between good and evil, Manichaeism was known for having knowledge as its road to salvation. The highest adherents to the religion were known as the “Elect” or the “Perfect” and resembled Buddhist monks, although they were required to be nomadic

Its followers were great missionaries, spreading Mani’s influence across the globe, until it lost its popularity in the Middle Ages. Much of their downfall was related to the many persecutions they suffered at the hands of the Chinese government, the ancient Roman government, or the Catholic Church. The greatest myth of Manichaeism is perhaps their creation myth which describes a battle waged between the World of Light and the World of Darkness, which began as two separate realms. Adam and Eve were said to have been created by the evil beings, while Jesus and Mani were said to have been created by the good beings, in order to reveal true spirituality to the human race. Many of Mani’s writings have been lost, but portions have recently been discovered.

Prophet Mani -

Mani, an Arsacid Persian by birth, was born 216 AD in Mesopotamia (Iraq), which was ruled by Persia, then within the Sassanid Empire province of Asuristan. According to the Cologne Mani-Codex, Mani's parents were members of the Jewish Christian Gnostic sect known as the Elcesaites.

Mani composed seven writings, six of which were written in Syriac Aramaic. The seventh, theShabuhragan, was written by Mani in Middle Persian and presented by him to the contemporary King of Sassanid PersiaShapur I, in the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. Although there is no proofShapur I was a Manichaean, he tolerated the spread of Manichaeism and refrained from persecuting it in his empire's boundaries.

According to one tradition it was Mani himself who invented the unique version of the Syriac script called Manichaean script, which was used in all of the Manichaean works written within the Persian Empire, whether they were in Syriac or Middle Persian, and also for most of the works written within the Uyghur Empire. The primary language of Babylon (and the administrative and cultural language of the Sassanid Empire) at that time was Eastern Middle Aramaic, which included three main dialects: Judeo-Aramaic (the language of the Talmud), Mandaean Aramaic (the language of theMandaean religion), and Syriac Aramaic, which was the language of Mani, as well as of the Syriac Christians.

While Manichaeism was spreading, existing religions such as Zoroastrianism were still popular and Christianity was gaining social and political influence. Although having fewer adherents, Manichaeism won the support of many high-ranking political figures. With the assistance of the Persian Empire, Mani began missionary expeditions. After failing to win the favour of the next generation of Persian royalty, and incurring the disapproval of the Zoroastrian clergy, Mani is reported to have died in prison awaiting execution by the Persian Emperor Bahram I. The date of his death is estimated at AD 276–277.

Spread of Manichaeism -

Manichaeism spread with extraordinary speed through both the east and west. It reached Rome through the apostle Psattiq by a.d. 280, who was also in Egypt in 244 and 251. It was flourishing in theFayum area of Egypt in 290. Manichaean monasteries existed in Rome in 312 during the time of the Christian Pope Miltiades.

In 291, persecution arose in the Persian empire with the murder of the apostle Sisin by Bahram II, and the slaughter of many Manichaeans. In 296, Diocletiandecreed against the Manichaeans: "We order that their organizers and leaders be subject to the final penalties and condemned to the fire with their abominable scriptures", resulting in martyrdom for many in Egypt and North Africa (see Diocletian Persecution). By 354, Hilary of Poitiers wrote that the Manichaean faith was a significant force in southern Gaul. In 381 Christians requested Theodosius I to strip Manichaeans of their civil rights. He issued a decree of death for Manichaean monks in 382.

More detailed pdf version will be upload soon stay tuned.

Wednesday, 20 July 2016

Lord Brahma - 5th head (Three stories from Purana) By Abir Maheshwari

1. Brahma Purana (Mount Sumera) :-

There was a war between the gods and the demons and the gods lost. The gods came to Brahma for advice and Brahma asked them to pray to Shiva.

When Shiva appeared before them, the gods said, “The demons have defeated us. Please kill them and save us.”

Shiva went to fight with the demons. He drove the demons off from Mount Sumeru and out of heaven. He pursued them to the ends of the earth. All this exertion made Shiva sweat. And wherever the drops of sweat fell down on the ground, terrible ogresses named matris were created. The matris also started to kill the demons and pursued them down to the underworld.

While the matris were killing the demons in the underworld, Brahma and the other dos waited on the banks of the river Goutami Ganga. This place came to be known as Pratishthana.

When the matris had killed all the demons, they returned to earth and began to live on the banks of the Goutami Ganga. This tirtha has come to be known as matritirtha.

Brahma used to have five heads. The fifth head was in the shape of a donkey’s head. When the demons were running away to the underworld, this donkey’s head addressed the demons and said, “why are you running away? Come back and fight with the gods. I shall aid you in your fight.”

The gods were alarmed at this paradoxical situation. Brahma was helping them in their flight with the demons and Brahma’s fifth head was trying to help the demons. They went to Vishnu and said, “Please cut off Brahma’s fifth head. It is causing too much of confusion.”

 “I can do what you want,” replied Vishnu, “but there is a problem. When the cut-off head falls on earth, it will destroy the earth. I think you should pray to Shiva to find a way out.”

The gods prayed to Shiva and Shiva agreed to cut off the head. But what was to be done with the severed head? The earth refused to bear it and so did the ocean. Finally it was decided that Shiva himself would bear the head.

The place where Shiva cut off Brahma’s fifth head is known as rudratirtha. Ever since that day, Brahma has had four heads and is known as Chaturmukha (chatur connotes four and mukha connotes face). There is a temple to Brahma on the banks of the Goutami Ganga. This is a holy place known as brahmatirtha. A killer of brahmanas is pardoned his sin if he visits this temple.

2. Brahma lied :-

Brahma lied that He had seen the top of Shiva's head -- the idea being that He had seen the "ends/beginning" of Truth/Time (represented by Shiva).

The Story...

Brahma at one point developed a significant ego claiming that he was the 1st of the trimurtis and should thus be worshipped over all. In discussing with his consort Sri Lakshmi, Lord Narayana is laughing saying “It is difficult enough when one head becomes full of ego; how much more difficult is it when all four of Brahmas heads are filled with egotistic pride?” Narayana and Shiva decide to teach Brahma a lesson. Shiva is of the opinion that Narayana is clearly the greatest, as He has the most difficult of responsibilities (sustenance is harder [requires proactive management] than either creation or dissolution). Narayana says "I have never seen the top of Shiva's head, so Shiva is clearly the greatest of us all, as He is beyond all knowledge." To resolve the dilemma, Shiva then says, let's pose a challenge that whosoever sees the top of my head is the greatest of the three. Brahma and Narayana accept the challenge. Brahma proceeds aggressively to locate the top of Shiva's head. Narayana gives up part way saying "As we keep going higher, Shiva's head continues to go on for eternity, there is no way that we will succeed, let us give up now and accept Shiva as the greatest of all." Brahma undeterred, proud, vain, and haughty keeps going upwards with the aim of seeing the top; Narayana returns after going part way, and upon prompting from Saraswati devi, He takes a different approach. He tells Saraswati, that "in this form, even I cannot see the top" and proceeds to take the Varaha avatar (boar) to dig into the bowels of creation to find Shiva's feet -- when he locates Shiva's feet and touches them, Shiva looks down with surprise to see who touched his feet, giving Narayana the opportunity to see the top of Shiva's head -- thus, proving the point that intellectual/egotistical efforts (like Brahma's method of trying to go "upwards" to find the top) will never lead to the ultimate knowledge, as knowledge itself keeps going on and on and on (knowledge is a limitless ocean), only self surrender at the feet of the Lord will enable you to attain that ultimate knowledge, knowing which, all else becomes known.

Here Shiva only curses Brahma that he will never be worshipped as God sbecause he had told a lie to win the competition -- Brahma uses falsified circumstantial evidence of the flower that fell from Shiva's head to say that He had seen the top, with a "white lie" saying "seeing the flower which fell from His head, is equivalent to seeing the top of His head." Thus, Shiva bans the use of this flower in His worship henceforth, and curses Brahma that he will never be worshipped by humans. In some versions, Shiva cuts off Brahma's 5th head because he lied with that head.

On the other hand, Shiva is profoundly astonished by Narayana's clever solution that enabled him to enact a "play within a play" in order to demonstrate this tattvam (principle) to Brahma.

The story also points out that mere intellectual efforts are insufficient for attaining the Supreme; one must, like a Boar, have dogged determination and intense bhakti to seek out the feet of the Supreme Lord, to attain the goal. The moral of the story being "those who speak the Truth in all circumstances are true devathas".

In this we can also see the tattvam of how Shiva worships Narayana, and how Narayana worships Shiva.

3. Dakshina Kali :-

As per Satpatha Brahmana, Brahma created a woman named Usha, who was epitome of feminity. Upon seeing her, Brahma was sexually aroused and approached his own daughter. He forced himself on her and they mated. At this, Lord Shiva appeared in the form of Bhairava and beheaded Brahma.

In Shiva Purana and Kalika Purana,  slight variations are introduced. Brahma creates twins, Sandhya and Kama along with Saptarishis. He bestows boon of wooing over Kama, as a result the wicked one tests his lust arrows on Brahma himself, who spills his semen virile while staring at Sandhya lustfully. Lord Shiva appears and rebukes Brahma for his passionate nature.

Thus humilliated by Lord Shiva, Brahma curses Kama to be killed by Lord Rudra. Also, to avenge his humilliation, Brahma requests Adi Parashakti to incarnate and woo Lord Shiva. In due course, She incarnates as Sati, the daughter of Prajapati Daksha and wins Lord Shiva by observing Nanda Vratam. Her marriage is arranged and Brahma is appointed the officiating priest. While Lord Shiva and Sati complete the Saptapadi ritual, Brahma lustfully stares at Sati's feet and spills his semen virile. He collects it in his Kamandalu and presses his penis with his feet so that no one notices. Sati feels disgusted by Brahma's act and an enraged Lord Shiva severes Brahma's fifth head then and there.

We find another version in Vamana Purana. Devas are terrified of an Asura called Dundubhi, and they seek refuge of Lord Shiva. Lord wages a fierce battle against Asuras and kills Dundubhi with his trident. Then He chases the escaping Asuras. While Brahma is seeing this, his fifth head, that resembles head of a donkey, speaks out "don't run. I will protect you". A furious Lord Shiva now grabs Brahma by his throat and severes the fifth head.

This are 3 stories from Puranas about Brahma 5th head.

Monday, 11 July 2016

1000 Names Of Lord Shiva

Shiva.. Mahadev.. Shankar.. Bholenath..
Very commonly pronounced names of Lord Shiva.
And many more to know many more to chant..
Lord Shiva was addressed by altogether 1000 names. And this names were addressed by The Grear Preserver Lord Vishnu with all the gods accompanying him in his mighty prayer to Lord Shiva.
Linga Puran discloses these names, which were addressed by lord Vishnu while praying to Shiva for Sudarshan Chakra (an astra/ disc shaped weapon).

The whole story goes as follows:

Once, a fierce war raged between the Gods and the demons. The gods received a sound thrashing and fled. While they were running away, they encountered Vishnu.
“Why are you running away?” asked Vishnu. “What on earth has happened?”
“The demons have defeated us,” replied the gods. “They have acquired all sorts of divine weapons, largely thanks to the boons that you have granted them. These weapons have made them close to invincible. You are our only hope now. Do you remember the wonderful weapon that was known as the sudarshana chakra? It was created by Shiva to kill Jalandhara. That is what is required now. Nothing esle will work.”
“I will help you,” promised Vishnu. “But we must first obtain the weapon, and to get it, we have to pray to Shiva”.
Vishnu and the other gods started to pray to Shiva. They called upon Shiva by his thousand names.

For convenience, to read we are arranging  those names in group of ten names each.

(1) Bhava, Shiva, Hara, Rudra, Purusha, Padmalochana, Arthitavya, Sadachara, Sarva, Shambhu.
(2) Maheshvara, Ishvara, Sthanu, Ishana, Sahasraksha, Sahasrapada, Variyana, Varada, Vandya, Shankara.
(3) Parameshvara, Gangadhara, Shuladhara, Pararthaikaprayojana, Sarvajna, Saradevadi, Giridhanva, Jatadhara, Chandrapida, Chandramouli
(4) Vidvana, Vishvamareshvara, Vedantasarasarvasva, Kapali, Nilalohita, Jnanadhara, Aparichedya, Gouribharta, Ganeshvara, Ashtamurti.
(5) Vishvamurti, Trivarga, Svargasadhana, Jnanagamya, Dridaprajna, Devadeva, Trilochana, Vamadeva, Mahadeva, Pandu.
(6) Paridrida, Vishvarupa, Virupaksha, Vagisha, Shuchi, Antara, Sarvapranayasvadi, Vrishanka, Vrishavahana, Isha.
(7) Pinaki, Khattangi, Chitravesha, Chirantana, Tomohara, Mahayogi. Brhamangahrita, Jati Kalakala, Krittivasa.
(8) Subhaga, Pranavatmaka, Unmattavesha, Chakshushya, Durvasa, Smarashasana, Dridayudha, Parameshthiparayana, Anadimadhyanidhana, Girisha.
(9) Girivandhava, Kuberavandhu, Shrikantha, Lokavarnottamottama, Samanya, Deva, Kodandi, Nilakantha, Parashvadhi, Vishalaksha.
(10) Mrigavyadha. Suresha, Suryatapana, Dharmakarmakshama, Ksehtra, Bhagavana, Bhaganetravida, Urgra, Pashupati, Tarkshya.
(11) Priyabhakta, Priyasvada, Dantodayakara, Daksha, Karpadi, Kamashasana, Shmashananilaya, Suksha, Shmashanastha, Maheshvara.
(12) Lokakarta, Bhutapati, Mahakarta, Mahoushadhi, Uttara, Gopati, Gopta, Jnanagamya, Puratana, Nita.
(13) Sunita, Shuddhatma, Soma, Somavrita, Sukhi, Somapa, Amritapa, Mahaniti, Mahamati, Ajatashatru.
(14) Aloka, Sambhavya, Havyavahana, Lokakara, Vedakara, Sutrakara, Sanatana, Maharshi, Kapilacharya, Vishvadipti.
(15) Trilochana, Pinakapani, Bhurdeva, Svastida, Sadasvastikrita, Tridhama, Soubhaga, Sarvasar-vajna, Sarvagochara, Brahmadhrika.
(16) Vishvasrika, Svarga, Karnikara, Priya, Kavi, Sahakhavishakha, Goshakha, Shiva, Naikya, Kratu.
(17) Gangaplavodaka, Bhava, Sakala, Supatisthira, Vijitatma, Vidheyatma, Bhutavahana, Sarathi, Sagana, Ganakarya.
(18) Sukirti, Chhinnasamshaya, Kamadeva, Kamapala, Bhasmodvulitavigraha, Bhasmapriya, Bhasmashayi, Kami, Kanta, Kritagama,
(19) Samayukta, Nivrittatma, Dharmayukta, Sadshiva, Chaturmukha, Chaturvahu, Duravasa, Durasada, Durgama, Durlabha.
(20) Durga, Sarga, Sarvayudhavisharda, Sutantu, Adhyatmayoganilaya, Tantuvarddhana, Shubhanga, Lokasagara, Amritashana, Bhasmashuddhikara.

(21) Meru, Ojasvi, Shuddhavigraha, Hiranyareta, Bharani, Marichi, Mahimalaya, Mahahrada, Mahagarbha, Siddharvrindaravandita.
(22) Vyaghracharmadhara, Vyali, Mahabhuta, Mahanidhi, Amritanga, Amritavapu, Panchayajna, Prabhanjana, Panchavimshatitattvajna, Parijataparavara.
(23) Sulabha, Suvrata, Shura, Vangmayanidhi, Nidhi, Varnashramaguru, Varni, Shatrujita, Shatrutapana, Ashrama, Kshapana.
(24) Kshama, Jnanavana, Achalachala, Pramanabhuta, Durjneya, Suparna, Vayuvahana, Dhanurddhara, Dhanurveda, Gunarashi.
(25) Gunakara, Anantadrishti, Ananda, Danda, Damayita, Dama, Abhivadya, Mahacharya, Vishvakarma, Visharada.
(26) Vitaraga, Vinitatma, Tapasvi, Bhutabhavan, Unmattavesha, Pracchanna, Jitakama, Ajitapriya, Kalyana, Prakriti.
(27) Kalpa, Sarvaloka, Prajapati, Tapasvitaraka, Dhimana, Pradhana, Prabhu, Avyayaya, Lokapa, Antarhitatma.
(28) Kalpadi, Kamalekshana, Vedashastrarthatattvajna, Nityama, Niyamashraya, Chandra, Surya, Shani, Ketu, Virama.
(29) Vidruchhavi , Bhaktigamya, Parabrahma, Mrigavanarpana, Anagha, Adrirajalya, Kanta, Paramatma, Jagadguru, Sarvakarmachala.
(30) Tvashta, Mangalya, Mangalarata, Mahatapa, Dirghatapa, Sthavishtha, Sthavira, Dhruva, Ahaha, Samvatsara.
(31) Vyapti, Pramana, Tapah, Samvatsarakra, Mantra, Pratyaya, Sarvadarshana, Aja, Sarveshvara, Snigddha.
(32) Sarvadi, Agnida, Vasu, Vasumana, Satya, Sarvapapahara, Hara, Amritashashvata, Shanta, Vanahasta.
(33) Pratapavana, Kamandaludhara, Dhanvi, Vedanga, Vedavit, Muni, Bhrajishnu, Bhojana, Bhokta, Lokaneta.
(34) Duradhara, Atindriya, Mahashaya, Sarvavasa, Chatushpatha, Kalayogi, Mahanada, Mahotsaha, Mahavala,, Mahabuddhi, Mahavirya.
(35) Bhutachari, Purandara, Nishachara, Pretachari, Mahashakti, Mahadyuti, Anirdeshyavapu, Shrimana, Sarvaharyamitagati, Vahushruta.
(36) Vahumaya, Niyatatma, Bhavodhava, Narataka, Ojastejodyutikara, Sarvakamaka, Nrityapriya, Nrityanritya, Prakashatmapratapa, Buddhaspashtakshara.
(37) Mantra, Sammana, Sarasamplava, Yugadikrita, Yugavarta, Gambhira, Vrishavahana, Ishta, Vishishta, Shishteshta.
(38) Sharabha, Sharabhadhanusha, Apangnidhi, Adhishtanavijaya, Jayakalavit, Pratishthita, Pramanajna, Hiranyakavacha, Hari, Virochana.
(39) Suragana, Vidyesha, Vibudhashraya, Valarupa, Balonmathi, Vivarta, Gahanagruru , Karana, Karta, Sarvavandhavimochana.
(40) Vidvattama, Vitabhaya, Vishvahbarta, Nishakara, Vyavasaya, Vyavasthana, Sthananda, Jagadadija, Dundubha, Lalita.
(41) Vishva, Bhavatmatmasthita, Vireshvara, Virabhadra, Viraha, Virabhrida, Virata, Virachudamani, Vetta,Tivrananda.

(42) Nadidhara, Ajnadhara, Trishuti, Shipivishita, Shivalaya, Valakhilya, Mahachapa, Tigmamashu, Nidhi, Avyaya.
(43) Abhirama, Susharanya, Subrahmanya, Sudhapati, Maghavana, Koushika, Gomana, Vishrama, Sarvashasana, Lalataksha.
(44) Vishvadeha, Sara, Samsarachakrabhita, Amoghadandi, Madhyastha, Hiranya, Brahmavarchasi, Paramartha, Paramaya, Shambara.
(45) Vyaghraka, Anala, Ruchi, Vararuchi, Vandya, Ahaspati, Aharpati, Ravivirocha, Skandha, Shasta.
(46) Vaivasvata, Ajana, Yukti, Unnatakirti, Shantaraga, Parajaya, Kailasapati, Kamari, Savita, Ravilochana.
(47) Vidvattama, Vitabhaya, Vishvaharta, Nitya, Anivarita, Niyatakalyana, Punyashravanadkirtana, Durashrava, Vishvasaha, Dhyeya.
(48) Duhsvapnanashana, Uttaraka, Dushkritiha, Durddharsha, Duhsaha, Abhaya, Anadi, Bhu, Bhulakshmi, Kiriti,
(49) Tridashadhipa, Vishvagopta, Vishvabharta, Sudhira, Ruchirangada, Janana, Janajanmadi, Pritimana, Nitimana, Naya.
(50) Vishishta, Kashyapa, Bhanu, Bhima, Bhimaparakrama, Pranava, Saptadhachara, Mahakaya, Mahamadhanu, Janmadhipa.
(51) Mahadeva, Sakaalagamaparaga, Tattvatativavivekatma, Vibhushnu, Bhutibhushana, Rishi, Brahmanavida, Jishnu, Janmamrityujaratiga, Yajna.
(52) Yajnapati, Yajva, Yajnanta, Amogha, Vikrama, Mahendra, Durbhara, Seni, Yajnanga, Yajnavahana.
(53) Panchabrahmasamutpatti, Vishvesha, Vimalodaya, Atmayoni, Anadyanta, Shadavimsha, Saptalodhaka, Gayatrivallabha, pramshu, Vishvavasa.
(54) Prabhakara,Shishu, Girirata, Samrata, Sushena, Surashatruha, Aristamathana, Mukunda, Vigatajvara, Svayamjoti.
(55) Anujyoti, Atmajayoti, Achanchala, Kapila, Kapilashmashru, Shastranetra, Trayitanu, Jnanaskandha, Mahajnani, Nirutapatti.
(56) Upaplava, Bhaga, Vivasvana, Aditya, Yogacharya, Brihaspati, Udarakirti, Udyogi, Sadyogi, Sadasanmaya.
(57) Nakshatramali, Narakesha, Sadhishtana, Shadashraya, Pavitrapani, Papari, Manipura, Manogati, Hritpundarikasina, Shukla.
(58) Shantavrishakapi, Vishnu, Grahapati, Krishna, Samartha, Arthanashana, Adharmashatru, Akshashya, Puruhuta, Purushtuta.
(59) Brahmagarbha, Vrihadagarbha, Dharmadhenu, Dhanagama, Jagatahitaishi, Supata, Kumara, Kushalagama, Hiranyavarna, Jyotishmana.
(60) Nanbhutadhara, Dhvani, Aroga, Niyamadhyaksha, Vishvamitra, Dvijottama, Vrihajyoti, Sudhama, Mahajyoti, Anuttama.
(61) Matamaha, Matarishva, Nabhasvana, Nagaharadhrika, Pulastya, Pulaha, Agastya, Jatukarna, Parashara, Niravarana.
(62) Dharmajna, Virincha, Vishtarashrava, Atmabhu, Aniruddha, Atrijnanamurti, Mahayasha, Lokachudamni, Vira, Chandasatya.
(63) Parakrama, Vyalakalpa, Mahavriksha, Kanadhara, Alankarishnu, Achala, Rochishnu, Vikramottama, Vegi, Ashushabdapati.
(64) Plavana, Shikhisarathi, Asamsrishta, Atithi, Shatrupramthi, Papanashana, Vasushrava, Kavyavaha, Pratapta, Vishvabhojana.
(65) Jarya, Jaradhishamana, Lohita, Tananapata, Prishadashva, Nabhahyoni, Supratika, Tamisraha, Shiva atapana, MegphapaksShiva

(66) Parapuranjaya, Mukhanila, Sunispanna, Surabhi, Shishiratmaka, Vasanta, Madhava, Grishma, Nabhasya, Vijavahana.
(67) Angira, Muni, Atreya, Vimala, Vishvavahana, Pavana, Purujita, Shatru, Trividya, Naravahana.
(68) Manovriddhi, Ahamkara, Kshetrajna, Kshetrapalaka, Tejonidhi, Jnananidhi, Vipaka, Vighnakaraka, Adhara, Anuttara.
(69) Jneya, Jyestha, Nihshreyasalaya, Shaila, Naga, Tanu, Deha, Danavari, Arindama, Charudhi.
(70) Janaka, Charuvishalya, Lokashalyakrita, Chaturveda, Chaturbhava, Chatura, Chaturapriya, Amnaya, Samamaya, Tirthadevashivalaya.
(71) Vahurupa, Maharupa, Sarvarupa, Charachara, Nyayanirvahaka, Nyaya, Nyayagamya, Niranjana, Sahasramurddha, Devendra.
(72) Sarvashastraprabhanjana, Munda, Virupa, Vikrita, Dandi, Gunottama, Pingalaksha, Haryaksha, Nilagriva, Niramaya.
(73) Sahasravahu, Sarvesha, Sharanya, Sarvalokbhrita, Padmasana, Paramjyoti, Paravara, Paramfala, Padmagarbha, Vishvagarbha.
(74) Vichakshana, Paravarajna, Vijesha, Sumukhasumahasana, Devasuragurudeva, Devasurananmaskrita, Devasuramahatra, Devadideva, Devarshidevasuravaraprada, Devasureshvara.
(75) Divya, Devasuramaheshvara, Sarvadevamaya, Achintya, Devatatma, Atmasambhava, Idya, Anisha, Devasimha, Divakara.
(76) Vibudhagravarashreshta, Sarvadevottamottama, Shivajnanarata, Shrimana, Shikhishriparvatapriya, Jayastambha, Vishishtambha, Narasimhanipatana, Brahmachari, Lokachari.
(77) Dharmachari, Dhanadhipa, Nandi, Nandishvara, Nagna, Nagnavratadhara, Shuchi, Lingadhyaksha, Suradhyaksha, Yugadhyaksha.
(78) Yugavaha, Svavasha, Savamsha, Svargasvara, Svaramayasvana, Vijadhyaksha, Vijakarta, Dhanakrita, Dharmavardhana, Dambha.
(79) Adambha, Mahadambha, Sarvabhutamaheshvara, Shmashananilaya, Tishya, Setu, Apratimakriti, Lokottara, Sfutaloka, Tryamabaka.
(80) Andhakari, Makhadveshi, Vishnukandharapatana, Vitadosha, Akshayaguna, Dakshari, Pushadantahrita, Dhurjati, Khandaparashu, Safala.
(81) Nishfala, Anagha, Adhara, Sakaladhara, Mrida, Pandurabha, Nata, Purna, Purayita, Punya.
(82) Sukumara, Sulochana, Samageya, Priyakara, Punyakirti, Anamaya, Manojava, Tirthavara, Jatila, Jiviteshvara.
(83) Jivitantakara, Nitya, Vasureta, Vasukiya, Sadgati, Satkriti, Sakta, Kalakantha, Kaladhara, Mani.
(84) Manya, Mahakala, Sadbhuti, Satyaparayana, Chandrasanjivana, Shasta, Lokaguda, Amaradhipa, Lokavandhu, Lokanatha.
(85) Kritajnakritibhushana, Anapayakshara, Kanta, Sarvashastrabhutasvara, Tejomayadyutidhara, Lokamaya, Agrani, Anu, Shuchismita, Prasannatma.
(86) Durjaya, Duratikrama, Jyotirmaya, Nirakara, Jagannatha, Jaleshvara, Tumbavini, Mahakaya, Vishoka, Shokanashana.
(87) Trilokatma, Trilokesha, Shuddha, Shuddhi, Rathakshaja, Avyaktalakshana, Avyakta, Vishampati, Varashila, Varatula.
(88) Mana, Manadhanamaya, Brahma, Vishnu, Prajapalaka, Hamsa, Hamsagati, Yama, Vedha, Dhata.
(89) Vidhata, Atta, Harta, Chaturmukha, Kailashashikharavasi, Sarvavasi, Satamgati, Hiranyagarbha, Harnia, Purusha.
(90) Purvajapita, Bhutalaya, Bhutapati, Bhutida, Bhuvaneshvara, Samyogi, Yogavida, Brahmanya, Brahmanapriya, Devapriya.
(91) Devanatha, Devajna, Devachintaka, Vishamaksha, Kaladhyaksha, Vrishanka, Vrishavardhana, Nirmada, Nirahamkara.
(92) Nirmoha, Nirupadrava, Darpaha, Darpita, Dripta, Sarvartuparivartaka, Saptajihva, Sahasrachi, Snigddha, Prakritidakshina.
(93) Bhutabhavyabhavanatha, Prabhava, Bhrantinashana, Artha, Anartha, Mahakosha, Parakavyaikapandita, Nishkantaka, Kritananda, Nirvyaja.
(94) Vyajamardana, Sattvavana, Sattvika, Satyakirti, Stambhakritagama, Akampita, Gunagrahi, Suprita, Sumukha, Naikatmanaikakarmakrita.
(95) Sukshma, Shukara, Dakshina, Skandhadhara, Dhurya, Prakata, Pritivarddhana, Aparajita, Sarvasaha, Vidagddha.
(96) Sarvavahana, Adhrita, Svadhrita, Sadhya, Purtamurti, Yashodhara, Varahashringavrika, Vayu, Valavana, Ekanayaka.
(97) Shrutiprakasha, Shrutimana, Ekavandhu, Anekadhrika, Shrivallabha, Shivarambha, Shantabhadra, Samanjasa, Bhushaya, Bhutikrita,
(98) Bhuti, Bhushana, Bhutavahana, Akaya, Bhaktakayastha, Kalajnanai, Kalavapu, Satyavrata, Mahatyagi, Nishthashantiparayana.
(99) Pararthavritti, Varada, Vivittana, Shrutisagara, Anirvinna, Kalankanka, Kalankaha, Svabhavarudra.
(100) Madhyastha, Shatrughna, Madhyanashaka, Shikhandi, Kavachi, Shuli, Chandi, Mundi, Kundali, Khadgi.

Lord Vishnu and the other gods prayed to Lord Shiva by calling upon him by these thousand names and offering him lotus flowers. Shiva wished to test Vishnu. So he quietly removed a lotus from the ones that had been offered.
Vishnu realised the deception. He plucked out one of his own eye **(in Sanskrit eye is known as PADMA and lotus is also known as PADMA)** and rendered it to Shiva as an offering in place of the flower. This pleased Shiva and he appeared. Such was his radiance that the gods, other than Vishnu, could not bear to look at him.
Shiva presented Vishnu with the divine sudarshana chakra. He also restored Vishnu’s eye.

Sunday, 10 July 2016

Indian Mythology - Isvara, Jiva, Prakriti. (Info inshort)


Both nirguna brahman and Isvara are accepted and worshipped. Entire world is the play or lila of Isvara. And Isvara hence could be worshipped as sakara. This can also be understood in the light that Viśiṣṭādvaita is religion + philosophy. Both upasana and Vedānta are closely knit.

The eternal is said to be five-fold, and worshipped in these five forms:

Para - The eternal being. This is Sri Maha Vishnu in times of non-creation in Vaikuntha, sleeping in the coils of infinity.

Vyuha - The one with four aspects, Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha (Vishnu Shasranama praises Him as caturvyuha, or having four vyuhas).

Antaryamin - The One (as soul) that pervades all creation.

Vibhava - The glorious incarnations of God, such as Sri Rama and Sri Krishna.

Arca - The forms of worship, such as incarnations, idols. Example of Arca-avatara is Venkateswara.


Jiva (individual soul) is said to be anu (indivisible),avyakta (unmanifest), acintya (unthinkable), nirvikara (having no distortion or transformation) and jnanasraya (the abode of knowledge). Jiva is an indivisible part of Isvara.

There are three types of Jivas, bound, liberated and eternal. Any Jiva prior to liberation or moksha is said to be bound. Post liberation the Jiva is mukta, and merges in Isvara. There are eternal jivas too, that are not bound but exist - such as devatas, consorts, servants, vehicles of Vishnu (Garuda, Java-Vijaya etc).


Prakriti is the cause of manifestation. It causes the three consiousness qualities, satva, rajas and tamas. There are two forms of satva, suddha satva and misra satva. Suddha satva is one that is not touched by rajas and tamas - this is the one that manifests in Vaikuntha, creating the "eternal" beings like Garuda and Anata. This is said to be nitya vibhuti. The phenomenal world is caused by misra satva, a combination of all the three qualities. This is said to be lila vibhuti.

-India Mythology (Short Info).

Friday, 24 June 2016

Brahma Mandir (Temple) Maharashtra - Travel log (Tighare) By Abir Maheshwari

Brahma Brahman - Travel log

Hearing the stories from childhood about supreme trinity, visiting Vishnu temple, Shiv Mandirs, worshiping the Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, and others was the cultural influence. But somewhere the worship seemed to be incomplete. There was a question stuck always in the mind, where is brahma, why the god of supreme knowledge and the creator can't be seen in any temple or at home been worshiped. This curiosity took us in the search of brahma temples. Resources like internet and public contact lead us to some spots near mumbai. The recent spot we visited on 19th of june 2016, Sunday. Which are situated in the Palghar dist. of Maharashtra near Mumbai. The place named kelwe and saphale are the neighbouring villages. And both are well rich in biodiversity and history too.

The place named kelwe which is also famous for its sea beach, have a temple of Lord Brahma. A small temple which was approximately 300 years ago built by Shri Satguru Padmanabh, as said by the locals. It was rebuilt in the year 1995 by the villagers of the village named Tighre in which the temple is situated. A small idol of one faced Brahma sitting on lotus and accompanied by Goddess of wisdom - Saraswati who is also wife of Lord Brahma. The temple also has idols of Lord ganesh and Shiv Lingam. The biggest festival of this temple is on the Solar Month of vaishakh, on 12th day of shukla paksha.

Brahma Mandir 1:
Brahma and Savitri

Brahma Mandir

Spot : Lord Brahma Temple
Place : Village Tighre, Taluka Kelwe/Saphale, dist. Palghar.
How to get there : railways and road transport are easily accessible. Railway from mumbai or from Gujarat on western railway line of India can take us to the railway station named Kelwe Road. From there the local auto rickshaw will take us to the village named tighre. The temple is the main road itself.
nearby place : the most famous nearby spot is kelwe beach.
From tighre we left for Saphale where the village named Makundsar. Not more than 10 KM from tighre. Here, there exists a small brahma mandir. It was recently built in the year of 1997. Here the three faced Lord Brahma sitting on Lotus rules the temple.

Brahma Mandir 2: 
Brahma Mandir

Spot : Brahma mandir
Place : village makundsar , Saphale, Palghar dist.
how to get there: the mode of transport is same as tighre.
nearby spot : a historical fort of 11th century names Tandulwadi fort.

Many Brahma Temples to be explored in coming future just hang on with us share it and follow us.

Monday, 11 April 2016

Analysing with astrology: Planets

Bowing to the pioneers of Vedic astrology - Maharishi Vashishti
Vedic planets or the navgrahas consists of following celestial objects
Sun (Surya)
Moon (Chandra)
Mercury (Budh)
Venus (shukra)
Mars (Mangal)
Jupiter (Brihaspati)
Saturn (Shani)
Rahu (shadow planet)
Ketu (shadow planet).
These planets can be further characterised as follows:

1. Sun || Surya || Ravi

Nature, Element, Cast : Satwik, Fiery, Kshatriya
Friends : Moon, Mars, Jupiter.
Enemies : Saturn, Venus.
Neutral : Mercury
Lord of : Leo
Exaltation : Aries
Debilitation : Libra
Kalas/kiranas : 30/20
Sex : Male.
Direction : East.
colours : Orange, saffron, light red.
stone : Ruby, garnet.
Numerology : 1,10,19
Deity : Shiva, Rudra, Lord Narayana, Fire, Sachidananda.

Beej mantra:
Om hraam hreem hraum se suryaya namah. (7000 times in 30 days)

Vedic mantra:
ऊँ आस्त्येन रजसा वर्तमानो निवेशयन्नमृतं मृत्र्य च।
हिरण्येन सविता रथेनादेवी यति भुवना विपश्यत्।।

Articles of donation:
Wheat, copper, ruby, gur, red cloth or flowers, sandal wood, khandsari, saffron (at Sun rise on Sunday)

Honey coloured eyes, weak eyesight, short hair, square in shape, hyper-irritability, well proportioned body.

Humour & parts of the body:
Bile, wind, bones, knees, navel.

Ailments :
Weak eyesight, heart disease, poisoning, bone fracture, mental, headache, migraine, fever, burns, cuts, wounds, gonorrhoea,
skin disease, leprosy, jaundice, bilious constitution, stomach, derangement, less of appetite, diarrhoea.

Represents :
Soul, atma, ego, doctoring, vitality, dhatus, capacity, strength.

Prominent qualities :
Political, aristocratic, royal, planet, quadruped, a source of life, a natural atamkaraka, Barren, heat and energy.

Karaka :
of royalty, name, fame, power, health, father, paternal uncle, politician, doctor, physician, authority, medicine, blood circulation, eyes,
wool, forests, wood, deserts, timber, soul, government, service (6th house), profession (10th house) places of worship, courage, hon’ble rank,
brokerage or commission, patrimony.

Professions & occupations :
Forest officer, creator, economic occupation, royal/govt. appointment, ruler, administrator, promoter, jeweller, owner, designer, dealer in wool,
ruling class, magistrate, surveyor, signaller, commission agent.

2. Moon || Chandra || Soma

Nature , Element, Cast : Satwik, Watery, Vaisya
Friends : Sun, Mercury.
Enemies : None
Neutral : Saturn, Venus, Mars, Jupiter.
Lord of : Cancer
Mooltrikona : Taurus 3° - 30°
Exaltation : Taurus 3°
Debilitation : Scorpio 3°
Kalas/kiranas : 16/8
Sex : Female.
Direction : North west.
colours : Silvery hue, white.
stone : Pearl, moon stone.
Numerology : 2, 11, 20
Deity : Durga, Parvati.

Beej mantra :
Om shraam shreem shraum se chanderaye namah. (11000 times)

Vedic mantra :
दघिशंखतुशाराभं क्षीरोदोर्णवसभवम् नवमि्। 
भाशिनं भवत्या भामभोर्मुकुटभुशणम्।।

Articles of donation :
Milk, curd, rice, pearl, misri, silver, white flowers, cloth or sandal (On Monday evening).

Appearance :
Pleasing eyes, oversexed, rheumatic, phlegmatic constitution, witty, unsteady mentally, circular shape.

Humour & parts of the body :
Left eye of male & right eye of female, uterus, breasts, cheeks, ovaries, blood, wind, phlegm, bladder, calves, flesh, stomach etc.

Ailments :
T.B., throat troubles, anemia, diabetes, menstrual disorders, nervous, lethargy, swelling, diseases of uterus, cough, dropsy, bronchitis, kidneys, blood impurity, fear from horned animal, fear from water, colic, skin disease, consumption, itches, indigestion, catarrh, dysentery, heart, lung, asthma, fever, jaundice appendicitis, diarrhoea.

Heart, mana, mind, moola.

Prominent qualities:
It gives strength to bear child, wavering, a planet of fecundation connected with water and natural forces, a crawling insect.

Karaka :
of watery places, mother, heart, mind, sea food, pearls, blood, fluids in the body, petroleum products, scent, left eye, gardening, travel,
emotions, salt, sea medicine, hernia, personality, liquids, foreign travels, rich dishes, changes.

Professions & occupations :
Journalism, tourism, traveller, water works, excise, women welfare, advertising, refreshment bars, sailors, salt hawker, mechanical engineer,
agriculture, hospitals, nursing homes, cattle, shipping, navy, fish, petroleum, coral, milk, liquor, pearls, nursery, chemicals, glasses.

3. Mercury || Budh

Nature, Element, Cast: Rajsik, earthy, shudra)
Friends: Sun, Venus.
Enemies: Moon
Neutral: Saturn, Mars, Jupiter.
Lord of: Gemini, Virgo.
Mooltrikona : Virgo 15° - 20°
Exaltation : Virgo 15°
Debilitation : Pices 15°
Kalas/kiranas : 8/10
Sex : Male eunuch.
Direction : North
Lucky colours : Brown, green, pastel shades.
Lucky stone : Emerald, onyx. (5cts. in quick silver on 2nd or 4th finger
Lucky nos.:: 5, 14, 23.
Deity : Vishnu, Lord Narayan.

Beej mantra :
Om braam breem braum se budhaye namah. (19000 times in 21 days)

Vedic mantra :
प्रियंगुकलिकाश्यामं रूपेणाप्रतिमं बुधम्।
सौम्यम् सौम्यगुणोपेतं तं बुधं प्रणामाम्यहम्।।

Articles of donation :
Sugar, moong, turpentine oil, green cloth, flower, ivory, camphor ( on Wednesday within 2 hours before sunset)

Appearance :
Polite talk, bilious, well built large body, taste for wit and humour, rheumatic.

Humour & parts of the body :
Skin, thighs, phlegm, wind, bile, anus, nervous system.

Ailments :
Mental diseases, typhoid, fevers, disorders of brain and vocal organs, piles, cervical, itches, liver, nervous break-down, vertigo,
stomach, diseases of eyes-neck and nose, white leprosy, fractures, stammering, indigestion, excessive sweating, poisoning,
boils, intestinal problems, impotency.

Represents :
Speech, Intellect, reasoning, mixture of the dhatus moola & jeeva

Prominent qualities :
Bandhu karaka, vidya karaka, janana karaka.

Karaka :
of friends, maternal uncle and aunts, adopted sons, nephews, elder co-born, intelligence, teaching, education, Vedas, Puranas, business,
trade, mathematics, accountancy, scientific learning, black- magic, clerks, pearl, laughter, smell, flowers, speech, printer, publisher,
oysters, squint eye, eloquence, adeptness.

Professions & occupations :
Accountants, chartered accountants, business, gem- examiner, advertiser, libraries, newspapers, publisher, stationery, bookshops,
copyists, authors, writers, educationalists, teachers, astrologers, auditors, post- men, journalism, physicians, mathematicians,
P&T department, counsellors, arbitrators, crafts, law, merchandise, transport, travellers, drivers, clerks.

4. Venus || Shukra

Nature, Element, Cast : Rajsik, airy, brahmin)
Friends : Mercury, Saturn.
Enemies : Sun, Moon.
Neutral : Mars, Jupiter.
Lord of : Taurus, Libra.
Mooltrikona : Libra 0°-15°
Exaltation : Pisces 27°
Debilitation : Virgo 27°
Kalas/kiranas : 12/14
Sex : Female
Direction : South- east.
Lucky colours : Pink shades, cream
Lucky stone : Diamond, white zircon/coral.
Lucky nos.: : 6, 15, 24.
Deity : Lakshmi, Indrani, Shachi.

Beej mantra :
Om dhraam dhreem dhraum se shukraye namah. (6000 times)

Vedic mantra :
हिमकुन्द मृणालाभं दैत्यानां परमं गुरुम्।
सर्व भास्त्र प्रवक्तारं भर्गव प्रणामाम्यहम्।।

Articles of donation :
Sugar, ghee, curd, camphor, rice, silver, white flowers, cloth or cow (On Friday at sun-rise).

Appearance :
Curly hair, handsome body, pleasing appearance and eyes, short stature, youthful looks, poor eater, poetic, rheumatic, phlegmatic.

Humour & parts of the body :
Genital organs, phlegm, wind, eyes, urine, semen.

Ailments :
Cataract, dropsy, excruciating pain in body, diseases of face, eyes and private parts, excessive sex urge or emission, venereal diseases, stone in bladder or kidney, fits, urinary diseases, swelling, genital troubles, diabetes, parotitis/parotiditis euphoria, white leprosy, small pox, in females- menstrual 
disorders and the like.

Represents :
Sensual pleasure, erotic impulses, jeeva.

Prominent qualities :
Poetic planet, of materialism, planet of pleasure of flesh and denotes splendour, vitality, radiance, seminal fluid, sports and games, art and culture.

Karaka :
Marriage, wife, wife’s parents, maternal grand-parents, sexual desires, kama, beauty, perfumes, fragrance, flowers, music, dance, songs, drama, youth, artistic talents, luxury articles, ornaments, good cloths, treasure troves, silver, gems, pearls, conveyances, pleasures of sense, passions, sour, black hair, watery places, water sports, wine, juicy objects, eroticism, mangalyakaraka, libido, lust, semen, comforts.

Professions & occupations :
Poets, painting, artists, musicians, dramatists, cinema line, garments, dress makers, jewellers, weavers, perfumes, vehicle dealers, excise, dairy, navy, building engineers, transport dealing with fair sex, income tax, wealth tax and revenue etc. If there is connection with Saturn of the nodes, beauty parlour.

5. Mars || Mangal || Kuja

Nature, Element, Cast : Tamasik, Fiery, Kshatriya)
Friends : Moon, Sun, Jupiter.
Enemies : Mercury
Neutral : Saturn, Venus.
Lord of : Aries, Scorpio.
Mooltrikona : Aries 0°-12°
Exaltation : Capricorn 28°
Debilitation : Cancer 28°
Kalas/kiranas : 6/10
Sex : Male
Direction : South
Lucky colours : Deep red.
Lucky stone : Red coral, garnet.
Lucky nos.: : 9, 8, 27

Deity : Ganpati, Shanmukha Kartikeya, Hanuman,Subramanya.

Beej mantra :
Om kraam kreem kraum se bhomaye namah. (10000 times in 20 days)

Vedic mantra :
ऊँ आस्त्येन रजसा वर्तमानो निवेशयन्नमृतं मृत्र्य च।
हिरण्येन सविता रथेनादेवी यति भुवना विपश्यत्।।

Articles of donation :
Red cloth, flower, sandal wood, wheat, masoor dal, ghee, copper (on Tuesday, within 48 minutes before sunset)

Appearance :
Medium built and height, fickle minded, lean, bilious, irascible, cruel.

Humour & parts of the body :
Bile hands, eyes, rectum, blood.

Ailments :
Blood pressure, boils, bloods, burns, cut, wounds, piles, urinary complaints, bone fractures, soar eyes, jaundice, tumours, oozing, itches, epilepsy, sores.

Represents :
Stamina, dhatus.

Prominent qualities :
Dictatorship, barren, a marital planet, planet of action and expansion, autocratic.

Karaka :
of step mother, younger brother, immovable property, lands, passions, anger, violence, hatred, stamina, muscles, bravery, force, lewdness,
defence, enemies, blood, accidents, sudden death, murders, sins, vindictiveness, science, mathematics, surgery, diseases, fires of ambition, logic.

Professions & occupations :
Property dealer, dentist, medical, chemist, surgery, engineering, cooking, barber, sports, athletes, hunting, involving instruments,
police, military, geology, circus, metal trade, thieving, jail, weapons, baker, fire man, lands, furnace, armament, dairy jobs.

6. Jupiter || Brihaspati || Guru

Nature, Element, Cast : Satwik, fiery, benefic)
Friends : Sun, Mars, Moon.
Enemies : Mercury, Venus.
Neutral : Saturn
Lord of : Sagittarius, Pisces.
Mooltrikona : Sagittarius 0°-10°
Exaltation : Cancer 5°
Debilitation : Capricorn 5°
Kalas/kiranas : 10/12
Sex : Male
Direction : North- east.
Lucky colours : Light blue, yellow shades lemon.
Lucky stone : Yellow sapphire, Golden topaz (4 to 6 cts. in gold)
Lucky nos.: : 3, 12, 21.
Deity : Lord Narayan, Shiva, Indra, Brahma.

Beej mantra :
Om graam greem graum se gurve namah. (19000 times)

Vedic mantra :
देवानां ऋशीणां गुरु कान्चन सन्निभम्।
बुधिभूतं त्रिलोकेश तं गुरुं प्रणामाम्यहम्।।

Articles of donation :
Turmeric, gram dal, topaz, gold, ruby, salt, jaggery or yellow cloth, flowers or laddoos. ( on Thursday evening).

Appearance :
Fair complexion, stout body, obese, phlegmatic.

Humour & parts of the body :
Thighs, phlegm, tongue, lungs, ears, knees, kidneys, liver, fat, brain, spleen.

Ailments :
Stomach troubles, gaseous troubles, cerebral problems, diabetes, dyspepsia, hernia, swooning, cataract, enlargement of organs, diseases of ears, spleen, lungs or navel, flatulence, adrenals, abscesses, piles, mental upsets, anemic, gall- bladder, jaundice, dropsy, fevers, carbuncle, giddiness, body pains, vertigo.

Represents :
Knowledge, wisdom, happiness and plentiful, jeeva.

Prominent qualities :
A spiritual, philosophical Planet of expansion and dignity, gives spirituality and wisdom. An idealistic planet, biped.

Karaka :
Guru, paternal grand-parents, husband, sons, religion, religious acts, faith, scriptures, sacrifice, devotion, good qualities, wealth,
intelligence, education, knowledge, royal honours, logic, astrology, control over senses, good virtues, janana, prosperity.

Professions & occupations :
Philosopher, professors, judge, law, lawyers, law-courts, scholars, venerable &respectable position, banks, treasuries,
income tax, revenue, editors, teachers, auditors, advertisements, financiers, councillors, priests, saints and sages,
charitable institutions, temples, share market, ministers.

7. Saturn || Shani || Shanaishchar

Nature and Element and Caste : Tamsik, airy, outcaste
Friends : Mercury, Venus.
Enemies : Sun, Moon, Mars.
Neutral : Jupiter
Lord of : Capricorn, Acquarius.
Mooltrikona : Acquarius 1°-20°
Exaltation : Libra 20°
Debilitation : Aries 20°
Kalas/kiranas : 1/16.
Sex : Female, eunuch
Direction : West
Lucky colours : Gray, navy blue, blackish.
Lucky stone : Blue sapphire, amethyst. (in steel or panchadhatu of 5 to 7 cts. in middle finger).
Lucky nos.: : 8, 17, 26.
Deity : Brahma, shiva (Mahamrityunjaya Japa).

Beej mantra :
Om praam preem praum se shanaye namah. (23000 times)

Vedic mantra :
नीलांजन समाभासं रवि पुत्र यमाग्रजम्।
छाया मार्तण्ड सम्भूतं तं नमामि शनैश्चरम्।।

Articles of donation :
Iron, black cow or horse, black nail, cloth, flowers, mash dal, musk. (at noon on Saturday)

Appearance :
Tall lean body, yellowish and sunken eyes, large and big teeth, large and coarse nails, lazy, rheumatic, stiff knotty hairs.

Humour & parts of the body :
Wind, bile, head, neck, teeth, bones.

Ailments :
Mental aberrations, rheumatism, cancer, tumours, stomach, gastric complaints, acidity, teeth problems, paralysis, deafness,
loss of limbs, pains, hysteria, cuts, glandular disease, chronicity/chronic, bruises.

Represents :
Moksha karaka, delays obstructions, sorrows, democracy, miseries.

Prominent qualities :
Stingy planet, planet of logic, philosophy, impotency, renunciation, cold icy planet, destructive forces, secretive, barren.

Karaka :
Younger co-born, patience, death, old age, sins, laziness, yama, miseries, poverty, sacrifice, service, servant, slavery, servility,
workers, hard labour, science, secrecy, imprisonment, law, debts, dearth, wants, touch, untouchables, timber, legs,
delays, obstacles, fall from heights, penury, ailments, ashes, poison, wood, wool, sadness, pilgrimage, land, longevity,
 enmity with govt.,
black grains, travel abroad for residence, agriculture, fear, oil, minerals, calamities, dishonour, arms, deformity,
robbery, renunciation.

Professions & occupations :
All kinds of responsible jobs, jobs connected with punishment, gambling dens, drivers, coolies, builders, servants,
serving class,
hard-working jobs, menial & physical work, bricks, glass and tiles factory, foot wears, oil digging, government service,
iron& steel work,
carpentry, matters related with deep meditation & extensive study, wood or stone work, house building, cheats,
 beggars, hangmen,
ascetic, brothels, black art and magic, umbrella, masons, agricultural implements, surveying, miners, contractors.

8. Rahu || Ascending Lunar node || Bhayanak

Dragon’s head, caput, ascending node
Nature and Caste : Tamsik, Asura
Friends : --
Enemies : --
Neutral : --
Lord of : --
Mooltrikona : --
Exaltation : --
Debilitation : --
Kalas/kiranas : --
Sex : Male
Direction : South-west.
Lucky colours : Gray, navy blue, blackish.
Lucky stone : Gomed or onyx. (sulemani). Male- in panchdhatu ring, right hand, 2nd/3rd finger. Female- in platinium ring, left hand, 2nd/3rd finger
Lucky nos.: : -
Deity : Mahashakti, Nagaraja.

Beej mantra :
Om bhraam bhreem bhraum se rahuve namah. (18000 times in 40 days)

Vedic mantra :
अर्थकायं महावीर्य चंद्रादित्य चिमर्दनम्।
सिंहिकाग र्भसंभूतं राहूं प्रणामाम्यहम्।।

Articles of donation :
Mooli, sarson, til, satanaja(mixed seven grains), saffron, lead, coal, blanket. (on Thursday evening or Monday morning).

Appearance :
Tall stature, black complexion, fierce looking, rheumatic, irascible.
Humour & parts of the body :
Feet and breathing.

Ailments :
Skin diseases, artificial poisons, diseases of spleen & adrenal, diseases of feet, boils, ulcer, burning sensation in body,
diseases difficult to be diagnosed, debility, insanity, intestinal diseases, leprosy.

Represents :
The lord of the sign where it is posited, materialism, planet of transcendentalism, oldish look and bald.

Prominent qualities :
Foreign travels, eccentricity, vairagyakaraka, jananakaraka.

Karaka :
Paternal grand-father, maternal grand-mother, given to bad habits, widow, immoral woman connections, pleasure with diseased women,
wicked woman, widowhood, falsehood, dignity, inventor, research, expenditure, short temper, suicide, gamblers, liquor, low caste, other caste,
fallacious argument, vexatious speech, darkness, drowning, sinking with ships, leprosy, enemies, accidents, heretic, hurting words,
poison, epidemics, reptiles, stones, hunters, pain and swelling, spot on skin, skin diseases, life in foreign land, dearth & want, exiles,
quarrels, harsh speech, wrestler, venomous, cunningness, backbiter, spy, mean minded, hypocrite, southwest, slavery, adulterer, buttocks,
travelling, amputation, strength.

Professions & occupations :
Computers, lawyer, medicine, research, aeronautics, profession of erratic and cruel nature, gambling, speculating, thieving, snake catchers,
mortuary, sewerage, electricity, aviation, airlines, telephones, scholars, slaughter houses, sorcery, poisonous drugs, butcher acts,
foul smelling dirty places, base job, corpses, magic, hides and skins, bone mills, wrestlers.

As per Satyacharya Rahu rules over professions attributed to Saturn.

9. Ketu || Descending node

Dragon’s tail, cauda, descending node)
Caste :  Asura
Friends : --
Enemies : --
Neutral : --
Lord of : --
Mooltrikona : --
Exaltation : --
Debilitation : --
Kalas/kiranas : --
Sex : Hermaphrodite.
Direction : North-west.
Lucky colours : --
Lucky stone : Cat’s eye, lapuz lazulli.
Lucky nos.: : --
Deity : --

Beej mantra :
Om sraam sreem sraum se ketuve namah. (17000 times in 40 days)

Vedic mantra :
केतु कृणवन्न केतवे पेशो मर्या अपेशसे।
समुशभि्उर जायथा:।।

Articles of donation :
Gold, sugar, til, musk, lead, saffron, blanket (black & white), satanja(mixed seven grains), part of food to black-white dog (on Sunday morning).

Appearance :
Tall stature, easily excitable.
Humour & parts of the body :

Ailments :
Skin diseases, sensation in body, suicidal tendencies, undiagnosed diseases, stomach pain, body pain, fever, cataract, enlargement of spleen,
feet burning, boils, diseases from unknown causes, itches, eruptive fever, leprosy, cuts, wounds, hydrocele, artificial poisons, lung trouble.

Represents :
Spirituality, the lord of the sign where it is posited.
Prominent qualities :
Marital and spiritual planet, moksha karaka, a mysterious, deceptive, secretive and intriguing planet.

Karaka :
Maternal grand-father, paternal grand-mother, dreams, moksha, eyes, salvation, governments fines, intrigues, injury, fire accidents,
murder, punishment, imprisonment, poison, evil spirit, perpetrator, adulterer, medical practitioner, final emancipation, sudden death,
 assassination, malicious, bitchy and poisonous speech, life in foreign land, lunacy, fastidious, leprosy, kidnapping, arrest, wounds, worms,
 diseases caused by worms, occultism, detachment, philosophy, long stature, spots on body, smoky colour, chain-smoker, astrology, religion,
miser, suicide, bankruptcy, bites, intercourse.

Professions & occupations :
Religious preacher, philosophy, occult science, medical practitioner, refuse bin, dealer in medicine, plotters, skeletons, bones, mortuary,
 slaughter houses, sewerage work, poisonous drugs, butcher acts, foul smelling and dirty places, corpses, hides and skins, bone mills.

As per Satyacharya Ketu rules over professions attributed to mars.

To be continued...